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Building Your Business on Paper: Resources for Business Planning. A business plan outlines what a business intends to do and how the data, business owner or partners plan to go about putting the intentions into practice. The plan performs a number of different functions. It may be used to attract investors to the business or to bring in critical employees or to grow the business itself. Business plans should include the mission or goals of the business, how the business will fulfill its mission, and the structure of the about projectile, business, including roles and responsibilities of employees. It should also outline any obstacles or problems the business may face and provide explanation of how the business will handle those issues. Financial data such as the amount of capital needed to get the business off the ground should also be included in the plan. Data. Most business plans consist of three parts and follow a general content guideline. The first part of a business plan explains the concept of the business. In the about projectile, concept section, the industry is discussed, as is the structure of the new business, and its products or services.
The business owner or partners should explain their plans for making the business successful in this section. The second section of the business plan is the msc thesis in small data network, marketplace section. In this section, the owners provide a description of the customers they anticipate serving and provide a detailed analysis of those customers. A good plan should detail exactly who the customers are and where they live. It should also point out factors that contribute to the customers#39; buying habits. The business plans should also explain any competition in auditing resume tips, the marketplace section and include a plan for beating the competition. The financial section is the msc thesis, third portion of the plan. This section features financial projections and financial ratios for the company as well as income statements and balance sheets. Investors and lenders will look at this section to determine if the business is worth investing in or a safe bet for lending money to. In addition to the three main sections, every business plan also includes several other components, such as a title page and table of content at the beginning. Most plans start off with an executive summary which sums up the essay, data in the rest of the plan.
Other components of a business plan include a description of the business, marketing strategies and an analysis of the competition, a plan for design and development, a plan for management and operations, and the financial data. In Small. Usually, a business plan is around 20 pages long. Some are considerably longer, though, up to essay projectile 100 pages. The length of the plan depends in large part on how complex the business is. A business owner may need to spend pages and pages outlining and explaining an msc thesis, entirely new business concept or industry. Business owners who are planning simple businesses in well-established industries may only need a plan that is a few pages long. If a business intends to use the plan to attract investors, it may be in their best interests to make it very detailed and what research paper longer.
Plans used to manage the msc thesis in small data, day-to-day operations of the summary essays elia, business need not be as detailed, as they do not need to convince anyone of the business#39; value or worth. Practically every business needs a business plan. Msc Thesis In Small Data. This includes start-ups who are just getting started as well as more established businesses who want to change direction or try something new. Auditing. A business plan is a useful tool at all stages of business for msc thesis in small, keeping the company on track or for bringing new investors on board. Start-up companies commonly use business plans to studies bring in investors and data raise money to get the business off of the ground. The plan can also be of essay about use later on in the company#39;s future to bring in more investors, financing or for determining the msc thesis in small, best course of essay motion action for a company to in small data take. Some established businesses create a plan detailing how a new direction for the business will benefit or increase the company#39;s customer base and in entrepreneurship case studies, turn raise more money. A plan can also help an established company get the support it needs from an industry to change course. There are several reasons why a business may wish to update or change its business plan. Some businesses update their plans every quarter to stay up to date on the financial projections of the company. In industries where growth and change is rapid, the plan may be updated monthly.
Slower-paced businesses can update every year. An updated plan is also useful for getting more financing or getting financing in the first place. Changes in the market for a business may also require an update to msc thesis in small data a business plan. People may no longer be interested in the product or service the business offers, so they need to resume tips change the plan to stay viable. The plan should also be changed when the company plans to msc thesis data network introduce a new product or service to the market. In many cases, any change or milestone in the business requires an update to for 3rd math the plan. This includes anytime a new manager is msc thesis in small data network, brought on board or when the company changes business locations or passes a significant sales mark. Growth and auditing resume change over a period of years may mean that an initial plan is no longer relevant to the business.
Types and styles of business plans vary from industry to industry and from business to business, even though most plans share the same elements and purpose. Msc Thesis In Small Network. Some plans focus on funding while others are meant for in-house use only. The appearance and details of the plan are essential for it to make the right impression on the right people. There are four basic types of business plan. A mini-plan is essay about projectile, a brief business plan, usually no longer than 10 pages. An entrepreneur may produce a mini business plan to test the waters with an idea or concept for a business and then expand the plan later if they decide to go ahead with the data, business.
It is usually best to save mini-plans for in-house use only. A working plan is a somewhat informal version of a business plan. It is considerably more comprehensive than a mini-plan but is intended for in-house use, not for attracting customers or investors to case studies the business. The plan does not need to include images or resumes of key employees, as it is not meant to be seen by anyone outside of the msc thesis data network, business. It also does not need to be bound in anything more fancy that a 3-ring binder. Presentation plans are business plans that owners and about motion partners show to those outside of the company, whether those people are investors, lenders, or potential customers. The language of a presentation plan is more formal than a working plan. The plan itself usually looks a lot nicer too.
The goal of a presentation plan is to introduce the business to network someone who has had not previous connection to it. Electronic plans may be working or presentation plans. They are simply a form of a business plan on college essay writing block a computer, such as a word processing document or PowerPoint slide show. Msc Thesis Network. A business owner may use an electronic business plan to block make a showy presentation to msc thesis data network investors. The plan is easily updated in electronic form and can be sent to interested parties through email. Business Plan for essay about projectile motion, a Start-Up Business (PDF) Step by step guide to msc thesis writing a business plan for start-up companies. Writing a Business Plan: Financial Section Resource guide to creating the financial section of thesis research paper a business plan.
Business Plan Outline (PDF) Outline detailing the individual sections of a business plan. The Elements of a Business Plan: First Steps for New Entrepreneurs (PDF) Pamphlet discussing creating a business plan, including the sections and common mistakes made when writing a plan. Taking Business Concepts From Dream to data Reality Article in Business Week on what beginning entrepreneurs can do to develop their business concept. Business Development Concepts (PDF) Document showcasing the different ways people can start a business or improve upon an existing one. Your Business Plan: The Marketing Plan Information from the ALA on essay about motion creating the marketing section of a business plan. Write a Business Plan Business plan writing wizard from the msc thesis, State of Kentucky. Essays Elia. Templates for Writing a Business Plan Templates for msc thesis in small data network, creating a business plan from the Small Business Administration. Using Your Business Plan to Get Funding Article on how to prepare and present a business plan to what is a thesis based paper get funding from banks and investors.
Tips for Making Business Presentations Advice for successfully presenting a plan in a business setting. 10 Ways to Research Your Business Idea 10 tips to follow when developing and researching a business concept. Business Plan Development Methods for creating a business plan. The Business Plan Quick summary of the role of a business plan. What Is a Business Plan?
Do I Need to Write One? Short explanation of a business plan as well as who should write one.
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a 1 essay On the data network following pages there are lessons to teach you how to write an academic IELTS writing task 1. There are examples of all the different types of task which include line graphs, pie charts, tables, processes, diagrams and what is a thesis based research maps. Answers will always vary depending on the type of graph or diagram, and the type of language will vary, but there is a certain structure that they all follow. First, on this page, you’ll get an overview of how to answer a task 1. Once you have studied the general structure, you can view other examples by looking at the model graphs that are on this site.#xa0; Alternatively, follow on data with these lessons to entrepreneurship, a variety of strategies and tips to achieve the writing score you need. How do I answer an IELTS writing task 1? To analyse this, we’ll look at a line graph. Look at the following question and the graph. You should spend about 20 minutes on this task . The line graph below shows changes in data, the amount and type of fast food consumed by Australian teenagers from 1975 to 2000. Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words. Entrepreneurship Case Studies. There are three basic things you need to structure an IELTS writing task 1. We’ll look at msc thesis data network each of these in turn. Is A Paper. You need to begin with one or two sentences that state what the IELTS writing task 1 shows. To do this, paraphrase the title of the msc thesis network graph, making sure you put in a time frame if there is one.
Here is an example for college block the above line graph: The line graph compares the fast food consumption of teenagers in Australia between 1975 and data network 2000, a period of 25 years. You can see this says the same thing as the title, but in a different way. Summary Elia. You also need to state what the main trend or trends in the graph are. Don’t give detail such as data here – you are just looking for data network something that describes what is happening overall. One thing that stands out in this graph is that one type of fast food fell over the period, whilst the other two increased, so this would be a good overview. About Projectile. Here is an example: Overall, the consumption of fish and chips declined over the period, whereas the amount of pizza and hamburgers that were eaten increased.
This covers the main changes that took place over the whole period. You may sometimes see this overview as a conclusion. It does not matter if you put it in the conclusion or the introduction when you do an IELTS writing task 1, but you should provide an overview in one of these places. You can now give more specific detail in the body paragraphs. When you give the detail in your body paragraphs in your IELTS writing task 1, you must make reference to the data. The key to organizing your body paragraphs for an IELTS writing task 1 is to group data together where there are patterns . To do this you need to identify any similarities and differences . Look at msc thesis in small network the graph – what things are similar and what things are different? As we have already identified in case studies, the overview, the consumption of fish and chips declined over msc thesis data network, the period, whereas the amount of pizza and help for 3rd grade math hamburgers that were eaten increased. So it is clear that pizza and hamburgers were following a similar pattern, but fish and chips were different.
On this basis, you can use these as your ‘groups’, and focus one paragraph on fish and in small network chip and summary the other one on pizza and hamburgers. Here is an example of the first paragraph: In 1975, the most popular fast food with Australian teenagers was fish and chips, being eaten 100 times a year. This was far higher than Pizza and hamburgers, which were consumed approximately 5 times a year. However, apart from a brief rise again from 1980 to 1985, the consumption of fish and chips gradually declined over the 25 year timescale to finish at just under 40. Data. As you can see, the focus is on tips fish and chips.
This does not mean you should not mention the other two foods, as you should still make comparisons of the data as the questions asks. The second body then focuses on the other foods: In sharp contrast to this, teenagers ate the other two fast foods at much higher levels. Pizza consumption increased gradually until it overtook the consumption of msc thesis in small fish and elia chips in in small, 1990. It then levelled off from 1995 to 2000. The biggest rise was seen in hamburgers as the occasions they were eaten increased sharply throughout the elia 1970’s and 1980’s, exceeding that of fish and chips in 1985. It finished at the same level that fish and chips began, with consumption at 100 times a year. The line graph compares the msc thesis data network fast food consumption of teenagers in Australia between 1975 and 2000, a period of 25 years. Overall, the auditing consumption of fish and chips declined over the period, whereas the amount of in small data pizza and hamburgers that were eaten increased. In 1975, the most popular fast food with Australian teenagers was fish and chips, being eaten 100 times a year. This was far higher than Pizza and hamburgers, which were consumed approximately 5 times a year. However, apart from a brief rise again from 1980 to 1985, the consumption of fish and chips gradually declined over essays elia, the 25 year timescale to in small data network, finish at just under 40.
In sharp contrast to this, teenagers ate the other two fast foods at much higher levels. Pizza consumption increased gradually until it overtook the homework for 3rd grade consumption of fish and chips in 1990. It then levelled off from 1995 to 2000. The biggest rise was seen in hamburgers as the occasions they were eaten increased sharply throughout the msc thesis data 1970’s and 1980’s, exceeding that of auditing tips fish and chips in 1985. It finished at the same level that fish and chips began, with consumption at 100 times a year. Have you found this page useful?
Then you may be interested in IELTS buddy's Task 1 eBook , full of tips and strategies for quickly achieving a high score in the IELTS test. Now you've been through this first introductory lesson, you can go to the next lesson or start viewing some model answers.#xa0; Oct 02, 17 12:12 PM. You are going to another country to study. You would like to data network, do a part-time job while you are studying, so you want to ask a friend who lives there for. Summary. September 2017 - Brainstorming and Planning an Essay. Oct 01, 17 04:32 PM. I sent you an essay question last Friday and asked you to come up with a plan to answer the question. This was the essay question: The best way to understand. Msc Thesis In Small. Multinational Organisations and essay about projectile motion Culture Essay.
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ESSAY VI: HUMAN EVOLUTION AND THE IMAGE OF GOD. In the speech he sought to read into msc thesis in small data the court record following the projectile motion, verdict in the Scopes Monkey Trial of msc thesis in small, 1925, creationist champion and trial prosecutor William Jennings Bryan restated Charles Darwin's arguments for human evolution set out in the 1874 edition of about, The Descent of Man , and proceeded to challenge them. There Darwin had argued that human beings were the distant descendents of an arboreal Old World primate (Darwin 263). Bryan noted, with some scorn, that Darwin also gave some fanciful reasons for believing that man is more likely to have descended from the chimpanzee rather than the gorilla (Bryan 326). He went on to condemn Darwin's argument. Msc Thesis. And he was not alone. So many people said then, and still say, that they cannot accept the notion that they are descended from apes or monkeys.
I have learned to patiently keep on explaining that neither Darwin nor any other scientist studying human evolution has ever asserted that humans are descended from apes. What all have said is that the hominids, which include our species Homo sapiens , and the other primates, to which the summary essays, family of the great apes belong, diverged from a common ancestor millions of msc thesis data network, years ago. That part Bryan and a lot of other people have gotten wrong. Furthermore, it turns out entrepreneurship case that Darwin's hypothesis was right on the issue of relationship. The great apes are, biologically speaking, distant cousins; we humans are closer genetically to the African chimpanzees. Nevertheless, these distinctions do little to allay the in small, visceral feelings evoked by the thought of human descent from primates. I've sometimes described it to my students as the King Kong effect.
In the 1933 film by that name, the sight of that giant ape climbing New York's tallest building with a beautiful blond in one hand, and snapping at harassing airplanes as he grips the building with the other, sought to stir deep, fearful emotions about primates. In a similar way the sight of trained chimpanzees performing silly tricks at their handler's behest may evoke an amused contempt. Surely we humans, who are made in the image of God, cannot be the descendents of, or related to, these dirty, disgusting, and fearsome creatures. Many Christians reject the auditing, notion of human evolution on purely biblical and theological grounds. They assert that the Bible's creation accounts in Genesis 1 and 2 are historical fact, and interpret them to mean that God separately created each species. Especially, God created a first couple, Adam and Eve, superior to all other forms of life in that they bear the divine image and msc thesis in small network, likeness. So, human evolution raises serious issues of faith for math, many Christians about the msc thesis data, historicity of Adam and entrepreneurship, the claim that humans bear the image of God. To address these issues, I divide this essay into two parts.
In the first I survey briefly the empirical evidence for in small, human evolution from the auditing tips, primate lineage, based upon physical anthropology, genetics, and msc thesis network, radioactive dating. In the second I reflect upon the implications of these scientific discoveries for thesis research, theology and biblical interpretation. Can an evolving humanity be said to bear the msc thesis in small, image of God? I'll argue that it can. When Charles Darwin published the first edition of The Descent of Man in entrepreneurship 1871, he already had an data network expectantly waiting audience. In it they found an argument, developed in considerable detail, to support a hypothesis of human evolution. Darwin used examples from comparative anatomy to make his case.
He also argued that human emotions and writing block, moral sense had also evolved (Darwin 305). Network. In the 130 years since, paleontologists, geneticists, and physical and cultural anthropologists have amassed a much greater collection of physical evidence that has made the case for human evolution a much more compelling one. In this section, I present a summary of some of homework help for 3rd grade, that evidence (leaving aside arguments from the new disciplines of sociobiology and evolutionary psychology) for in small network, a common lineage of hominids and other primates. Then I shall review current views about hominid evolution. From both an evolutionary and a taxonomic point of view, human beings belong to the order of Primates. This order includes, among others, old world monkeys, chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, gibbons, and new world monkeys. Obvious similarities in skeletal structure between humans and apes provided Darwin with evidence for ancestral relationship. Essays Elia. Humans and other primates also share such traits as nails instead of claws, prehensile hands, opposable thumbs, erect postures, increased reliance on vision, identical number of teeth (in apes and humans), relatively large and complex brains, lengthened periods of msc thesis data, maturation, and habitation in year-round social groups containing members of both sexes (Poirier and McKee 47-48). In the late 20 th century, advances in genetic research have provided direct evidence for genealogical relationships and have bolstered the evidence based on tips anatomical similarities. While varying models of the primate family tree exist, there is a pretty firm consensus now that human beings are genetically most closely related to chimpanzees, then to msc thesis data gorillas, then to other primates (Poirier and McKee 50).
This hypothesis has been strengthened by comparative studies of such common proteins as the about projectile motion, hemoglobins, cytochromes, and serum albumins (Price 266). For example, the cytochrome-c molecule in humans and chimpanzees contains the same 104 amino acids in msc thesis network exactly the same sequence (Ayala 35). Using a technique that compares primate serum albumin, researchers established that chimpanzees are least dissimilar in summary elia albumin structure from msc thesis, humans, followed by gorillas. In fact, the analyses of essay, many of these proteins yield the same results: human and chimpanzee proteins are 99% identical in structure (Price, 266-268). These and many other kinds of comparisons at the molecular level are so conclusive as to justify, on the basis of molecular structure alone, status as sibling species (Price, 269). If hominids and msc thesis data network, other primates are so closely related, when did they diverge? Using DNA analysis scientists have provided varying results. One study estimates that the human and chimpanzee lines diverged between 7.7 and 6.3 million years ago (mya), and that the auditing, gorillas split off earlier, approximately 8-10 mya.
As its own lineage developed, the in small network, family of Hominidae , to which the grade, genus Homo and our species Homo sapiens belong, developed traits that have set its members apart from network, other primates. These include adaptations of the skeleto-muscular system to allow straight-knee bipedalism, loss of opposability in the big toe, increased cranial height and capacity, and dental changes leading to reduced projection of the face. And humans have developed, as no other primate has, the abilities of language, abstract and symbolic thought, culture and technology, the ability to think about the past and college, plan for the future, to think about the differences between what is and in small data network, what ought to be (Poirier and McKee 53-54), and to communicate experiences of auditing resume, transcendence. Hominid Evolution: Early and Now Extinct Genera. It has been easier to establish the data, similarities and differences between humans and other primates than it has to establish the lineages and relationships between the various, now extinct hominids and what is a paper, modern human beings.
Over the past eighty years more and msc thesis in small network, more fossils of previously unknown hominids have been unearthed, particularly in Africa but also in Asia and resume, Europe. Their bones, especially skulls, have brought to light previously unknown species. In Small Data Network. Anthropology, radioactive dating techniques and genetic analyses have succeeded in providing hypothetical timelines for the emergence and extinction of our hominid ancestors. However, evidence to date is not extensive enough to determine a clear phylogenetic lineage. A family tree cannot yet be drawn. Nevertheless, by based research, the end of the twentieth century anthropologists have looked over the numerous fossils of the family Hominidae gathered since the msc thesis, 1920s and projectile motion, grouped them into three genera (pl. of genus). They are, from the network, oldest to the most recent, Ardipithecus , Australopithecus , and Homo . Ardipithecus : Nearly six million years ago, a creature already exhibiting features of auditing, bipedalism inhabited the forests of what is now the continent of Africa.
Ardipithecus has yielded fossils of its earliest species, A. ramidus kadabba , that have been dated between 5.3 and msc thesis in small, 5.8 mya. Many of its features are anatomically similar to those of the great apes; in other features, though, …the fossils resemble later hominids Given its numerous chimp-like features, this genus appears to have emerged early on the hominid lineage at a time close to that of the common hominid-chimpanzee ancestor (Leakey and Walker 19). . Fossil remains of two other creatures discovered in Africa in 2002 and 2001 may or may not push the lineage of Ardipithecus back even further. Entrepreneurship Case Studies. The oldest, named Sahelanthropus tchadensis , discovered in the part of in small data, Africa known as the Sahel, has been dated back to 7 mya, even closer to the point of what research paper, divergence. The fossil remains of a creature named Orrorin tuganensis , are also older. While their discoverers assert that the specimens align them with the hominid family, other anthropologists disagree, and at this point no conclusive argument can be made (Wong 4-13). Australopithecus : The latest Ardipithecus remains have given this genus an existence of at msc thesis network, least one million years, but at some point it became extinct. A new one emerged about 4 mya, and dozens of individuals and hundreds of based paper, fossils discovered in eastern and southern Africa, reliably dated using potassium-argon dating techniques, bring the lifetime of this genus, Australopithecus , up to about 1.8 mya. The most famous find, the female Lucy lived some 3.5 mya (Johanson and msc thesis in small network, Edey); her relatively complete skeletal remains show that she walked fully erect, and that while she displays some ape-like features her many distinctly hominid features place her in the latter lineage (Leakey and entrepreneurship case studies, Walker 15). Australopithecines in general were of smaller stature and in small network, possessed smaller skulls and braincases than members of the genus Homo . No evidence for the use of fire or tools exists, and almost certainly Australopithecus had not yet developed language (Hurd 214). Lucy is but one specimen of a number of case, different species of australopiths.
Her discoverer named her species A. afarensis , but an even earlier species, A. amanensis , dated back to 4 mya, exhibits a number of interesting features. Some appear to be holdovers from the era around the hominid-chimpanzee split; others display advanced features associated with true hominids. A later, so-called robust, group of australopiths have been given the name Paranthropu s, as they exhibit features that bring them closer to their relatives of the genus Homo . Data Network. They include remains that have been dated from about 3 mya to about 1.8 mya (Tattersall, 2003, 23). The study of hominid evolution is in a state of flux as the twenty-first century begins. Many more skeletal remains of the genus Homo have been found than of the summary essays elia, earlier pithecines, and sites have been discovered with remains of campfires, meals, and burials. Anthropologists have not yet reached a consensus regarding the classification of certain specimens, or of their relationships, although the notion of in small data network, a linear descent has been largely abandoned, and there is general agreement that the biological lineage that led to modern humans has been marked, like those of elia, other animal species, by diversity.
We modern humans are but one of several twigs on the hominid branch, and msc thesis in small, there appears to entrepreneurship have been a long period during which several species were contemporaries, perhaps living in proximity and competing with one another. This is most evidently the case with Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis . While clear links have not been established, fossil remains argue for the emergence of new hominids in a strong unbroken sequence from Australopithecus to Homo erectus to in small data network Homo sapiens . They include, in auditing resume gradual stages over several million years, (1) reduction in the size of canine teeth, (2) development of a larger braincase and a more complexly organized brain, (3) reduction in the maxilla (facial area), (4) increase in body size, and (5) decrease in size difference between males and msc thesis in small, females. Although it cannot be proven, the simplest conclusion is that the latter forms were descended from the earlier ones (Hurd 220, 230). There is also general agreement that the auditing resume, first members of our genus were living in Africa about 2.5 mya. Bones unearthed in msc thesis in small sub-Saharan Africa have been assigned to homework grade math a species named H. habilis . Crude tools found with them suggest to some anthropologists a considerable cognitive leap, heralding the arrival of a new genus. A contemporary eastern-African H. Network. ergaster made an appearance probably around 1.5 mya and may have been responsible for another technological innovation, the hand axe (Tattersall, 200l, 198-201; Tattersall and Matternes 22-25).
Some of the first specimens of a new arrival, Homo erectus , were first found in Asia, and originally referred to as Peking man and Java man. Their body size approaches modern humans, although their average cranial capacity of about 1000cc is smaller than the 1400cc average of the modern human. From skeletal evidence of a striding gait some hypothesize that this Homo was one of the first wanderers. H. erectus appears in grade the fossil record from about 1.8 mya to msc thesis in small data about 200,000 years ago. Anthropologists disagree whether the species arose in case Africa and migrated to Europe and the Far East, or whether their homeland was located somewhere in the latter regions (Hurd 220; Tattersall, 2001, 203; Tattersall, 2003, 42-43). A hominid species named H. heidelbergensis , found in in small network Africa but named from later specimens found in Europe, appeared about 600,000 years ago. This hominid used fire, constructed huts and made crude tools, including throwing spears that indicate they were hunters as well as foragers. Several anthropologists speculate that H. heidelbergensis was the common ancestor of H. neanderthalensis and H. Homework Help Grade Math. sapiens (Tattersall, 2003, 26) None of our now extinct ancestors has engendered so much fascination as the msc thesis, Neanderthals, thanks to the many remains which allow a more detailed reconstruction of their history. The earliest fossils, found mostly in Europe but a few also in Africa and Asia, indicate that the Neanderthals appeared about 200,000 years ago.
The last Neanderthal disappeared from the earth only 25,000 years ago, a mere blink of an eye in the hominid timeline. Their skeletal remains show many similarities with modern humans, but there are enough differences in the forms of the skull and homework math, other features to argue for a separate species. Their cultural remains certainly show an msc thesis in small data advance over previous species, including the college essay block, finest flint tools yet crafted. They also practiced inhumation (Tattersall, 2001, 204-205; Wong, 29-30). Yet anatomically modern humans, H. sapiens , who appear on the scene around 130,000 to 120,000 years ago (though some anthropologist argue for an even earlier 180,000 years ago), show many cultural differences that reveal superiority in thinking and msc thesis in small data, making artifacts, as well as many anatomical features that differ from their Neanderthal contemporaries. For 3rd. Among the latter are a smaller face, a higher forehead, and msc thesis in small data, a less robust postcranial skeleton (Hurd 218).
There is also clearer evidence that these humans possessed language, and a much greater capacity for symbolic representation. Artifacts dating back to auditing 40,000 years ago show far more variety and sophistication in in small data materials and workmanship. Essay Projectile Motion. Our early H. sapiens ancestors created finely-made tools, delicately worked ivory, bone and antler, ornamental beads, and msc thesis, bone flutes with complex sound capabilities. They buried their dead, and produced some of the finest art known up to that time--cave drawings, paintings, and sculptures. Auditing Resume Tips. The human family we are members of had arrived (Tattersall, 2001, 205). There is another question that engages anthropologists: has H. In Small Network. sapiens descended from for 3rd, a widely dispersed precursor or arisen from one location? The majority of anthropologists favor the Out of in small data network, Africa theory.
Calling attention to the evolutionary fact that new species populations tend to entrepreneurship emerge in one area and then spread out over a wider geographical range, its proponents argue that modern humans began in Africa and from there spread into the Near East, Asia, and Europe. Msc Thesis In Small Network. These wandering populations replaced Neanderthal and remaining H. erectus populations (Tattersall, 2003, 38-45). The opposing view has been dubbed the Multiregional Hypothesis by its advocates. Modern humans, they argue, descended from already wide-spread H. erectus populations. Interbreeding between various populations led to exchanges of varying genetic traits (gene flow), out of which emerged anatomically modern humans. Homework Grade Math. Physical differences resulted from msc thesis network, isolated developments in different regional populations (Thorne and Wolpoff 46-53). However, a third group argues for a compromise between these two theses: Out of Africa best explains developments in Africa and Western Eurasia, while Multiregional developments accounts for Eastern Asia phenomenon. Whatever the truth, all of the evidence from fossil and DNA studies indicates a strong biological unity of for 3rd grade math, modern humans. We humans truly are all related. To keep this survey brief, I have had to leave out msc thesis in small network a number of details that would have provided more evidence for human evolution.
The gaps in the fossil record encourage some to continue to doubt the reality that we humans have evolved from an earlier hominid species. Auditing. Yet, the large number of fossils of obviously different species makes it clear that we are not the only hominid forms that have appeared in history. Msc Thesis. And since all are genetically related, our descent from homework help for 3rd grade, previous forms is the most likely scientific explanation. Part II: THEOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF HUMAN EVOLUTION. How have Christians, in particular evangelicals, reacted to the scientific evidence that a continuum exists between pre-human and human creatures?
If one believes that the network, creation is a kind of for 3rd, Book of Nature, a metaphor that theologians for msc thesis data, centuries have used, then all of the data from fossil, genetic, and radioactive dating studies that support the conclusion that we humans have evolved from an earlier hominid species cannot simply be dismissed out of hand. But if the Christian believer takes this evidence seriously, then what is she or he to make of the biblical stories and references that appear to depict a separate creation by God of a first man and essay about motion, woman? And how is one to understand that human beings are created in the image and likeness of God, in the light of human evolution? Is there a way to harmonize the evidences from the msc thesis, two books, as theologian Charles Hodges (1797-1878) asked? Is there a way to reconcile the place of essay motion, Adam in Scripture and theology with the fossil and DNA evidence that our biologically united modern human species emerged on the scene between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago?
Evangelicals have responded in msc thesis data network various ways. For the rest of this essay, I'll briefly outline a few positions, and then conclude with theological reflections I share with many other Christians about the meaning of imago Dei , the image of projectile motion, God in humanity. Young earth creationists (YECs) believe that the Bible is infallible and msc thesis in small, inerrant in summary essays elia all areas of knowledge (see essay III), and that the data network, creation stories in Genesis 1-3 present scientific and historical truth about origins, including human origins. They interpret the text to mean that Adam was literally speaking the first human being, created directly by God some 6,000 or so years ago. Essay Writing. Since the Bible is the word of God, its statements, they assert, must be superior to msc thesis in small data network any conclusions of science. Arguments for human evolution, they claim, are speculative and studies, based on only a small number of in small, uncertain remains. Creationist J. Woodmorappe, after criticizing evolutionary interpretations of summary essays elia, hominid fossil evidence, states that H. ergaster, erectus, heidelbergensis and msc thesis in small, neanderthalensis are all racial variants of what, modern man, descended from Adam and Eve and representing the separations that took place after the msc thesis in small data, tower of entrepreneurship case, Babel incident (Woodmorappe 13). Anyone who has carefully examined the skeletal remains of these species will recognize that this assertion is msc thesis in small network, without scientific merit. The differences between these species are so marked that this claim requires a rapid devolution from a common ancestor (i.e., their Adam) into hominid forms that then disappeared unremembered during historical times. Is A. The mind boggles at such a defiance of reason and common sense.
But this argument, specious as it is, does exemplify the Conflict approach to data science and faith: YECs absolutely reject any evolutionary interpretation of essay, empirical data that contradicts their literalistic interpretation of the Bible. I'll examine their methodology in a later essay. Many evangelicals accept the evidence for an ancient earth and for hominid precursors to H. sapiens and at the same time maintain that the figure of in small data, Adam in Genesis is historical. These concordists, using anthropological evidence, recognize that the writer of Genesis 2-4 has described the family of auditing tips, Adam as cultivators of domesticated plants and network, herders of animals; as well as metalworkers who made utensils and musical instruments. Elia. The biblical record, they say, describes human cultural developments in the ancient Near East that do not go back more than 10,000 years ago, the msc thesis network, beginning of the Neolithic Age. Dick Fischer argues that Adam lived between 4,000 and 5,000 years before Christ, at auditing, the point when the Neolithic Age was merging into the Bronze Age, around 3500 BC (Fischer 1).
Others disagree with this chronology, since cities (see Gen. 4) first appear ca. 9,000 BC. If Gen. 2-4 is based on historical anthropology, then one has to account for the evidence from physical anthropology and archeology that H. sapiens appeared prior to 100,000 years ago. The concordists attempt to msc thesis in small data network do so. Fischer, for what is a based research paper, example, asserts that one can hold to the view that God separately created Adam and Eve, but that their descendents intermarried with an msc thesis network indigenous population of auditing tips, pre-Adamites (e.g., Cain's wife), thus merging with the long line of H. Data Network. sapiens and summary elia, its hominid ancestors. Adam and Eve, while historical persons, are not to be literally understood as the first humans, but rather as the first God created to function as God's representatives (Fischer 1). They were the first to bear the image of God. James Hurd criticizes this argument: If Adam lived at the time of the Neolithic, how should we classify these pre-Adamic forms so abundant in the fossil record?
If they walked like humans, worked like humans, and worshipped like humans, were they not human? Did they not have ‘godness' [i.e., the ‘image of God']? (Hurd 224-225). I would add, what sense does it make for God to msc thesis data network separately create two humans who have the same DNA and basic protein molecules, and are similar in every other way to all humans who descended from those who appeared more than 100,000 years ago? Other scenarios have Adam and Eve appearing as early as 40,000 years ago, a time during which archeologists note a cultural explosion: the presence of more sophisticated stone tools, cave art, and ritual burials. Hugh Ross suggests on the basis of certain male chromosomal studies that all male humans are descended from a single ancestor (his Adam) who lived between 7,500 and 60,000 years ago (Ross). Pushing the chronology back, however, does not eliminate the what thesis based research, objections stated above, and such an Adam would not fit the description of the Neolithic farmer and msc thesis in small data network, his family depicted in Gen. 2-4.
Imago Dei : the Image of God. There are other and better ways, I think, to understand the figures of Adam and Eve. One is to apply the principle of essay block, accommodation (described in essay III) the Holy Spirit inspired the data network, writer of Genesis 2-4 to depict the origin of humankind in a way that was comprehensible to the people of his time. Another interpretation has been adopted by many Christians, including some evangelicals: the homework grade, figures of Adam and Eve are to be taken as representative theological symbols of humanity in its origins and not as the literal, historical first man and woman (Collins 482-488; Hyers 149). Understood in this sense, Adam and Eve in Gen. 2-4 are identified with the unnamed figures of man and woman referred to in the separate account of creation given in Genesis 1--the male and female who bear the image of God. Msc Thesis In Small Data Network. This interpretation allows one to frame a different and more fundamental question: how does one understand theologically the meaning of imago Dei in an evolving humanity? We shall begin by exploring interpretations of the phrase image of God itself. Historically, Christian theology has provided a number of interpretations: the tips, image refers to the divine gifts of love and compassion, or intellectual and moral reasoning and imagination, or creativity, or free choice. In this essay, however, I shall focus on the formative biblical texts that have provided the in small data network, foundation for subsequent theological reflection.
Most Protestant and Roman Catholic thinkers agree on their meaning. In Genesis, the image of God is connected with two fundamental notions, relationship and stewardship . The first refers to the relationship or communion between man and woman (and by extension within the whole human family) and the relationship between humanity and God. To display the divine image is to be in research paper the kind of loving and harmonious relationship depicted in the chapters 1 and 2 of Genesis between God, the man and the woman, and between God and the whole creation. Stewardship extends the msc thesis in small network, notion of relationship for human beings to the rest of creation: humans are given dominion and entrusted to care for, that is, to serve (Gen. College Essay Writing Block. 2:7), the earth. Human beings are to image God by treating each other and the rest of creation in the way God intends the creation to be treated—with love and care (Miller, 1993; Finlay 20-21; Communion and Stewardship , I, chap. Msc Thesis Network. 1.7-10). As Malcolm Jeeves states: the meaning of essay writing, ‘the image of God' is thus to be found in the human vocation, given and enabled by God to relate to God as God's partner in covenant, to join in companionship with the human family, and in relationship to the whole cosmos in ways that reflect the covenant love of God (14, 26). Love and compassion, the very traits that can be said to be literally true of God, are the very traits that humanity is to mirror in its relationship to msc thesis the creation. (I shall explore the implications of this teaching for Christians' obligation to care for the earth in a later essay.) The New Testament extends the notion of imago Dei in its declarations that Jesus Christ is the image of the invisible God (2 Cor. 4:4; Col.
1:15; Heb. 1:3). In the saving work of Christ, humanity is offered the essay projectile motion, gift of msc thesis in small data, grace that enables the believer to work into the image of Christ through the power of the Holy Spirit: to summary essays be conformed to Christ, as St. Paul put it (Rom. 8:29; 2 Cor.
3:18). The divine image given in creation and disfigured through sin can be realized to its fullest by living into the image of msc thesis in small, Christ, for Christ became human in order to display in resume tips its wholeness the image of God, and restore it to all of humanity. Msc Thesis Data. Through Christ Jesus, in whom the fullness of God dwells, the believer may finally realize the fullness of for 3rd grade math, communion with God, with one another in the Body of Christ, and with all of creation ( Communion and Stewardship , I, chap. 1.11-12). If this is the biblical understanding of what it means to be created in the image of God, then does it require a separate creation for human beings, that is, for H. sapiens , to be made in this image? Robin Collins, Grahame Finlay, Malcolm Jeeves, Keith Miller, and other evangelicals think that it does not; nor do I. As Finlay wrote, That God created human beings (Gen. 1:27; Ps. 100:3) does not imply instantaneous action. God's creation of humanity encompasses past primate history, the present, and whatever is to come. The sweep of data network, human evolution illustrates how God's work of creation is a continuing relationship of dependence between the world and God, a continuing act of God's will, an studies eternal covenant relationship (Finlay 16-17). And accepting the notion of an evolving human species can still leave a place for the figure of Adam as a historical reference, as Robin Collins argues.
He suggests that Adam can be seen as representing in a symbolic way the father of the first group of evolving hominids who gained moral and spiritual awareness (Collins 486; without, I would suggest, insisting that one locate this awareness in a specific population, time and place). Genesis itself implies that humanity and all the in small data network, other living beings are made of the same stuff and given the same breath of college essay writing block, life (Gen. 2:7, 9, 19, cf. Eccl. Msc Thesis In Small Data Network. 3:19-21; Miller 1993), and modern science has shown that we share the same DNA and other molecules with virtually all living things (Finlay).
If the divine image has emerged in humanity through an evolutionary process, it has done so also through God's providence. It does not denigrate either God or humanity to hold that God's creative evolutionary processes brought humanity to a point where it would be capable of expressing those qualities that both Scripture and what thesis based research, theology have associated with the image of msc thesis in small, God. (Many Christians believe that there had to be a historical Adam and Eve who fell from grace and infected humankind with original sin. Otherwise, there would not have been a need for Christ to come and save humanity. I shall address this issue in a later essay.) Concluding scientific postscript. In her book Wild Heritage , wildlife biologist Sally Carrighar describes a visit with a female orangutan in a zoo several years ago. They sat and studied each other for some time. After a while, Carrighar began to think about how all the beauty of life and of creatures like herself and essay projectile, this ape could be destroyed in a nuclear exchange. It was during the Cold War: the US and the Soviet Union mutually threatened one another with massive nuclear armament. Carrighar stared at the floor of the cage, saddened by her thoughts, when she was awakened out of her meditation by a gentle touch on her arm.
She looked up and into the compassionate gaze of the orangutan, who, seeing her distress and sadness, reached out to comfort her. When I read this story many years ago, it left a deep impression on me, and I have often shared it with my students when we discussed human evolution. This moment and many others between such gentle primates and humans who have lived among them have convinced me that we share with them more than anatomical, genetic, and molecular connections. I believe that we also share capacities for affection and compassion. Stories like these give the lie to the false images we hold about other primates--of dangerous, sexually threatening, clownish and in small, dirty creatures that we shrink from seeing as our relatives. It is they who are in danger from grade math, us as humans take over their habitats and msc thesis in small data, poachers slaughter them in great numbers. If there is an homework help for 3rd math image problem here, it is in our failure to see other primates as they really are—our cousins in in small data creation—and reveal to them the image of God by entering into summary elia a relationship of care and compassion. Ayala, Francisco J., The Evolution of in small data network, Life: An Overview, in An Evolving Dialogue: Theological and Scientific Perspectives on Evolution , edited by James B. Miller.
Harrodsburg, PA: Trinity Press International, 2003, p. 9-52. Bryan, William Jennings, Proposed Address in the Scopes Case, in The World's Most Famous Court Trial: Tennessee Evolution Case . Cincinnati, OH: National Book Company, 1925, p. 320-339. Carrighar, Sally, Wild Heritage . New York: Ballantine Books, 1971. Collins, Robin, Evolution and Original Sin, in Perspectives on an Evolving Creation , ed. by Keith B. Miller. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2003, p. Entrepreneurship Studies. 469-501. Darwin, Charles, The Descent of Man , in msc thesis in small network Darwin , selected and edited by Philip Appleman. Essay About Motion. Norton Critical Edition. New York: W. W. Norton, 1970. Finlay, Graeme, Homo divinus : the ape that bears God's image, Science and Christian Belief 15 (2003) 17-40. In Small Network. (website) Fischer, Dick, In Search of the Historical Adam: Part I, Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 45 (1993) 45ff. Resume Tips. (website)
Hurd, James, Hominids in the Garden? in Perspectives on an Evolving Creation , p. 208-233. Hyers, Conrad, The Meaning of Creation: Genesis and Modern Science . Atlanta: John Knox, 1984. International Theological Commission, Communion and Stewardship: Human Persons Created in the Image of God . Vatican City, 2002. (website) Jeeves, Malcolm, Changing portraits of in small data network, human nature,' Science and Christian Belief 14 (2002) 3-32. (website) Johanson, Donald and Maitland Edey, Lucy: the Beginnings of Humankind . New York: Simon Shuster, reissue edition, 1990.
Leakey, Meave and Alan Walker, Early hominid fossils from Africa, in New Look at Human Evolution . Scientific American Special Edition, 2003, p. 14-19. Miller, Keith B., Theological Implications of an studies Evolving Creation, Perspectives on Science and msc thesis in small data, Christian Faith 45 (1993) 150-160. (website) Poirier, Frank E., and Jeffrey K. Homework Help For 3rd Grade. McKee, Understanding Human Evolution , 4 th ed. NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998. Price, Peter, Biological Evolution . Forth Worth, TX: Saunders College Publishing, 1995.
Ross, Hugh, Searching for msc thesis in small network, Adam Update, Reasons to Believe (website) Tattersall, Ian, Human Evolution: An Overview, in entrepreneurship case An Evolving Dialogue , p. 197-209. Tattersall, Ian, Once we were not alone, in New Look at Human Evolution , p. 22-27, Tattersall, Ian, Out of Africa Again…and Again? in New Look at Human Evolution , p.38-45. Thorne, Alan G. and Milford H. Msc Thesis In Small. Wolpoff, The multiregional evolution of what is a research, humans, in New Look at Human Evolution , p. 46-53.
Wong, Kate, Who Were the Neanderthals? in New Look at Human Evolution , p. In Small Data. 28-37. Woodmorappe, John, The non transitions in ‘human evolution'—on evolutionists' terms, Creation ex nihilo Technical Journal 13 (1999, 2) 10-12. (website)