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Lastly, we know that since technology has evolved so much as is now even incorporated in wellness programs, we would ensure that we raise the level by buy essays, incorporating tech into our wellness deigns and programs as well as in our marketing. Corporate Wellness Center Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Corey Corporate Wellness Inc is essay writing, established with the aim of offering improving the health and wellness of our clients and their employees, so that the employees become more productive at the work place. We intend to cater to all kinds of clients, small, medium and large scale corporations. Corey Corporate Wellness Inc therefore intends to generate income for the business by offering the following products and services; Corporate wellness programs which includes health risk assessment, massage therapy, gyms, food health and weight loss Other specialized services such as chiropractic and acupuncture, health fairs, physical and mental contests. Trainings Consultations Franchises. Even though the recent economic downturn slowed down the cheap demand for corporate wellness programs, the auditing resume tips rising economy has seen demand pick up and surge like never before as more companies are considering the buy essays cheap social and studies, emotional health of their employees and can also afford to buy essays cheap, pay for them. Our sales forecast is an english as a language essay optimistic one as we are strategically located in Brooklyn – New York and therefore are optimistic that we would not only generate enough to cover our running expenses in the first year of business, but that we would make profit as well. To enable us carry out an accurate sales projection, we hired the help of a business sales consultant experienced in the wellness industry here in cheap Brooklyn to entrepreneurship case, critically examine our position in the industry and come up with a factual sales forecast. Buy Essays Cheap? The business consultant carried out an analysis based on information such as other similar start-up here in Brooklyn as well as based on as our location. Below are the sales projections that were carried out for Corey Corporate Wellness Inc; N.B : It should be noted that the sales projection were carried out based on the information available during the time of analysis, such as a stable economy, few competitors in the same location.
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In making sure that our corporate wellness business is as a global language pdf, preferred amongst the target market here in Brooklyn – New York, we intend to ensure that our marketing executives are empowered to draft and modify strategies that they feel will enhance their task of attracting the kinds of clients we seek. We also intend to hire a business consultant with vast experience in marketing to work with our marketing team in ensuring that they deliver on buy essays, our corporate objectives. We know and understand the importance of technology, and so we would use technology in photography research deploying our marketing strategies to buy essays cheap, be able to resume tips, achieve our vision. Buy Essays? We would ensure that we build an app for essay writing block, our clients that will notify them of new products and services and also keep them updated on any news in the industry, thereby allowing us to win a large percentage of the market. Therefore the marketing strategies that we at Corey Corporate Wellness Inc intends to adopt for our business includes; Introduce our Corey Corporate Wellness Inc to our target customers by buy essays cheap, sending our brochures and as a global language, business cards and offering to buy essays, meet with the management of to use when our target companies. Advertise our corporate wellness business in relevant magazines, local newspapers and on radio and television stations. Throw a grand opening party that will attract the notice of buy essays our target customers Ensure that our business is listed in online and offline directories Use our social media platforms such as LinkedIn, Facebook, and Google hangout to market and advertise our business Advertise our business in popular blogs, forums and websites Engage in direct marketing Encourage referrals from our loyal customers. Corporate Wellness Center Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy.
Publicity is very important for a business as it allows the business create an data identity that will ensure that the brand is projected in a positive manner. Every business no matter how highly placed needs publicity that will enable it be seen by its target customers and also favorably compete with other similar businesses. At Corey Corporate Wellness Inc, we intend to explore all means of publicity for our brand. Due to the advent of the internet, publicity for businesses have been made easier and buy essays cheap, cheaper, and so we would heavily explore all publicity strategies on essay, the internet and mix these with conventional publicity methods to achieve our intended vision. The different platforms we intend to buy essays cheap, leverage on in promoting and block, advertising Core Corporate Wellness Inc are: Creating a unique website and advertising our products and services there Creating a unique and attractive logo that will make us easily recognizable in public Use social media platforms such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, and buy essays, Google Hangouts to to use an essay, promote our business Write engaging and educative articles and send them to forums and blogs Ensure that our business is buy essays, listed in online and offline directories Place our flexi banners in strategic locations so that our customers can see and case studies, patronize us Pass out fliers and buy essays, handbills in strategic locations. Our Pricing Strategy. The pricing fixed for services are not usually determined in auditing resume the same way as that fixed for products, and this is due to the fact that services cannot be quantified. The corporate wellness business is cheap, a service based business and so a lot of factors would need to auditing tips, go into determining the right price to give to your clients. It is essential whilst setting the price that it is cheap, fair both to the customers and o your business as well, so that your customer doesn’t feel cheated and you do not run at a loss.
However, since we are relatively new in the market, we would strive to to use when an essay, attract new customers to buy essays, our business by lowering our rates for the first few months of operations. There are already strategies in place to ensure that the lowering of our prices does not hurt our business. The payment policy at Corey Corporate Wellness Inc is one that would ensure that all our customers’ preferences are covered especially as we are aware that our customers would prefer to resume, have different options available to them when they pay. The payment options that we intend to make available for all our customers are; Payment by cash Payment via check Payment via Credit Card Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via website portal. Our payment options were carefully chosen with our bank, which is not only reputable but has a banking platform that will ensure that all these payment options are performed without hitches. Every business no matter how well designed it is buy essays, requires start-up capital to be able to run operating expenses as well as overhead costs. Most of the big words to use an essay start-up capital we will generate will be used to sustain the business till it can comfortably generate enough revenue to pay for itself. This means that the bulk of cheap capital will go towards paying employee salaries and pay utility bills. The key areas we intend to spend our start-up capital on are; Total fee for case studies, business incorporation $750 Obtaining of licenses and permits as well as accounting software $1,250 Cost of hiring business consultants $5,000 Insurance coverage (workers compensation, general liability) $2,000 Marketing expenses (expenses geared towards grand opening and regular marketing activities) $4,500 Operational expenses for a period of 6 months (employee salaries and bills payments) $100,000 Administrative expenses which includes stationeries. computer, phone, printer, furniture ) $5,000 Cost of leasing a facility for one year including renovations $50,000 Cost of work-out equipments $27,000 Cost of launching a website $500 Cost of throwing an opening party $2,000 Miscellaneous $2,000. From the above report, we would need a total of $200,000 to be able to kick start Corey Corporate Wellness Inc in Brooklyn – New York and keep it running for a period of at cheap least one year.
The amount includes the auditing resume facility we intend to lease as well as employee salaries and bill payments. Cheap? Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Corey Corporate Wellness Business. Every new business needs capital, and Corey Corporate Wellness Inc is no exception. Corey Corporate Wellness Inc is a business that is college essay writing, owned and operated by businessman and entrepreneur, Joseph Morrison. Morrison has decided on the various sources through which he intends to get his capital from. Therefore the buy essays cheap areas which we intend to generate start-up capital from are; Raising money via personal savings Sourcing for soft loans from friends and family members Apply for loan from the bank. N.B: We have succeeded in college essay writing raising the following amount from buy essays cheap these three sources; personal savings $30,000, Soft loans from friends and photography, family members $40,000, loan from bank just approved $130,000. Corporate Wellness Center Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. Buy Essays? Every business that intends to make profit and use that to sustain itself and also expand will require strategies in case studies order to achieve this.
Some of the factors that must be put into consideration if a business is to successfully deploy sustainability and expansion strategies are; The kind of employees that are employed Its customer retention rate Its overall business structure. If these factors are well looked into, we are sure that we will be able to attain sustainability and cheap, eventually expansion as well for our corporate wellness business. Making the right decisions from photography early on will have a positive impact on the business. Hiring competent and experienced employees into the right positions will likely save any business some foundational problems. Our employees also have to be attuned to the vision of the company and must be ready to ensure that the vision and objectives of the company are achieved as it should. While it is important for us to hire competent and experienced employees into the right positions, we also know how important it is to ensure that they not only work in a conducive environment but that they also have welfare packages and are offered incentives that will continually motivate them to increase their productivity in cheap the work place.
Every business knows how important customers are and college essay writing block, how a mass exodus of customers can ruin a business. Our sustainability strategies will include retention strategies for our customers and buy essays, we intend to achieve this by offering excellent customer care to our customers by answering their inquiries and ensuring that all their complaints are dealt with promptly. We would always ensure that we not only meet the expectations of our customers but exceed it as well. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and college essay, permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of buy essays cheap Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of an essay employees: In Progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business both online and around the community: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors – wholesale suppliers / merchants: In Progress Purchase of cheap trucks: Completed.
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rogerian style essay An Alternative to Traditional Rhetoric. University of Calgary. As the Introduction to this volume points out, all of the approaches to argumentation collected here offer some form of alternative to the argument as war metaphor. Cheap. In each approach, argument is redefined as one or another form of negotiated inquiry into common grounds for belief. Rogerian rhetoric also moves away from a combative stance, but is distinct from other models of argumentation in three ways. First, it goes even farther than most other models in avoiding an adversarial approach. Second, it offers specific strategies based on big words when writing, nondirective therapy for building the co-operative bridges necessary for buy essays noncombative inquiry. Third, and in msc thesis in small data network, my opinion most important, it has the potential to offer students an opportunity for long-term cognitive and ethical growth. Ever since Young, Becker and Pike introduced the discipline of composition to buy essays, Rogerian rhetoric in 1970, our profession has remained deeply divided over whether such a rhetoric is conceptually sound, useful in essay, practice, or even possible.
Some have argued that it is nothing but warmed- over Aristotelian rhetoric (Lunsford 1979); others, that it is untrue to Carl Rogers' principles (Mader 1980), or that it is a cumbersome welding-together of persuasion and non-directive therapy, two fundamentally incompatible processes (Ede 1984). Cheap. All of these criticisms point to resume tips, real problems with the model, problems which often reflect the way it has been conceptualized by its proponents. Nonetheless, the literature of composition studies reflects a continuing fascination with Rogerian principles. Buy Essays. Textbooks continue to writing an essay, suggest these principles as alternative methods of persuasion (Coe 1990; Flower 1993), and a recent collection edited by Nathaniel Teich (1992a) presents a wide variety of cheap, both philosophical and pedagogical investigations into Rogerian perspectives. In this chapter I will try to account for this continuing fascination with Rogerian rhetoric and photography research paper, explain what it can offer that no other approach to argumentation can quite match. To do so I will briefly survey the history of Rogerian rhetoric and outline its basic principles. Then I will discuss some of the ways in buy essays, which Rogerian principles can be used in practice to teach both a technique of inquiry and photography, an ethic of inquiry. BACKGROUND: ROGERIAN THERAPY AND ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Carl Rogers is more familiar to many as a therapist than as a rhetorician.
However, the goal of therapy, like the goal of cheap, rhetoric, can be broadly described as attitude change. Whereas the rhetorician may want his audience to entrepreneurship studies, adopt certain specific beliefs, the therapist may not--in fact, should not--have a clear model of specific behaviors which he wants the client to adopt in place of the dysfunctional ones that brought her into therapy in the first place. Rather, he aims for a broader change in the way the client interacts with the world. Cheap. Nonetheless, the studies essence of buy essays, both arts is to induce change through verbal means--Plato's art of msc thesis in small network, influencing the soul through words (1956, 48). Rogerian therapy informs rhetoric by offering a new way of thinking about the means of inducing change. Rogers (1951) describes how, as a young practitioner, he quickly discovered that he could not change the attitudes or behavior of his clients by rational argument. The ideal rhetorical situation as described by Plato involves an audience which, like his hero Socrates, is not less happy to be refuted than to refute (1951, 17). Buy Essays Cheap. Alas, this attitude is rare among real, vulnerable human beings who are not characters in a Platonic dialogue.
Clients in therapy, at the peak of their vulnerability, are particularly unhappy to be refuted. When Rogers began to photography paper, explain how unreasonable his clients' unreasonable fears were, how self-destructive their self-destructive behavior was, he met a blank wall of resistance. The problem, he decided, was that rational argument of this type always implies a form of evaluation. Argument may convince a person to buy this kind of car or to cheap, vote for that politician, but the closer the subject of argument comes to the beliefs that constitute the case core of a person's sense of self, of identity, the more any attempt to buy essays, change beliefs is perceived as a threat and met with walls of defence. The way around these walls, Rogers discovered, was to change the role of the language pdf therapist. The therapist, in Roger's view, is not a healer, but rather a facilitator of healing. She does not explain her point of view to the client, but instead listens actively to cheap, the client as he gets in touch with his own thoughts and entrepreneurship studies, emotions and does his own healing. For the art of rhetoric, the buy essays cheap most immediately useful aspect of Rogerian therapy is the specific technique that Rogers developed to facilitate this self-healing process.
This technique is called restatement or saying back. English Global Language. Rogers is quite explicit that this is not simply a passive process (1965, 27). The therapist continually repeats back her understanding of the client's words in summary form in order to check her understanding of the client's mental state. Thus the therapist might say, It sounds as though what you are really saying is that you hate your father. The client might respond, No, that's not quite it, and the therapist would continue with more probes such as, Well, perhaps you were just angry with him at that moment. Always the therapist must walk the fine line between giving the client words to express hitherto inexpressible feelings and putting words in his mouth. As a therapeutic tool, Rogerian reflection is buy essays both difficult--it can quickly degenerate into an irritating echo-chamber of voices--and breathtakingly successful when done well.1 In this pure form, Rogerian therapy is not argument. It is in fact anti-argument, a form of discourse in which the speaker must specifically avoid stating a point of view either directly or indirectly. However, Rogers himself speculated on how his principles could be applied in rhetorical situations, though always under the rubric of communication rather than rhetoric.
In his 1951 paper, Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation, he proposes that the empathy and feedback model could be used to facilitate communication in emotion-laden situations outside the college therapeutic relationship, such as political or labor negotiations. His formula is simple: Each person can speak up for himself only after he has first restated the ideas and feelings of the previous speaker, and to that speaker's satisfaction (332). Buy Essays Cheap. In later articles he details Rogerian-style negotiation sessions that have produced astonishing results, including the Camp David negotiations conducted by Jimmy Carter, a conference involving health care providers and impoverished and embittered health care consumers, and even opposing sides in Northern Ireland (Rogers and Ryback 1984). It is entrepreneurship case this power to create an atmosphere of co-operation that led Young, Becker and buy essays cheap, Pike to propose an alternative form of rhetoric based on Rogerian principles (1970).2 Rogerian rhetoric as recreated by Young, Becker and Pike is aimed at those situations in which more confrontational techniques are most apt to fail: that is, in highly emotional situations in which opposing sides fail to entrepreneurship, establish even provisional grounds for discussion. Cheap. Young, Becker and Pike recommend that, rather than trying immediately to present arguments for her point of view and to refute her opponent's, the writer should first undertake a task similar to that of the Rogerian psychotherapist. She should try to reduce the reader's sense of threat by showing that the writer has genuinely listened to the reader's position.
This reduction of threat will in turn induce an assumption of similarity: the reader will see the writer as a human being more or less like herself and therefore be more likely to listen to what the photography writer has to say. Although they argue that it should not be reduced to a mechanical formula, Young, Becker and Pike outline four basic stages through which a Rogerian argument should pass: 1. An introduction to the problem and cheap, a demonstration that the opponent's position is english language essay pdf understood. 2. A statement of the contexts in which the opponent's position may be valid. 3. Buy Essays Cheap. A statement of the writer's position, including the studies contexts in cheap, which it is valid. 4. A statement of how the opponent's position would benefit if he were to adopt elements of the writer's position.
If the college essay block writer can show that the cheap positions complement each other, that each supplies what the other lacks, so much the better. Msc Thesis Network. (283) Not every version of Rogerian rhetoric emphasises exactly these stages, but the common denominator among all versions is that the buy essays writer must state the opposing viewpoint first, before stating her own, and entrepreneurship case studies, do so honestly, with understanding, and buy essays cheap, without either overt or covert evaluation. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN THE WRITING CLASSROOM. Beginning with Maxine Hairston's seminal article (1976), a number of writers have recommended Rogerian rhetoric as an alternative form of argument to be used, as Young, Becker and Pike originally recommended, when emotions and a sense of threat preclude direct debate in the classical mode (Bator 1980, 1992; Coe, 1992). Lunsford and Ede (1984), Gage (this volume) and others have argued that those who view classical rhetoric as inherently combative have been misled both by later misreadings of Aristotle and his contemporaries and by an incomplete understanding of the role of the enthymeme. To Use When Writing. They argue that the enthymeme, the cheap heart of as a global language pdf, Aristotle's structure of argumentation, differs from the logical syllogism precisely in that it involves the rhetor in the building an argument from the opinions of the audience. Classical rhetoric can therefore be seen as co-operative, not combative.
This in fact is the basis for buy essays Lunsford's argument that a Rogerian alternative to msc thesis in small data network, traditional rhetoric is buy essays cheap unnecessary (1979). Regardless of the merits of case studies, these arguments, the traditional conception of rhetoric still poses limitations. Traditional rhetoric as envisioned by Aristotle and by most modern textbooks on argument is buy essays typically triadic; that is, it is aimed at a third party who will judge the case on global essay pdf, the basis of the arguments presented by buy essays cheap, competing advocates, politicians, researchers, advertisers, or other partisan arguers. Paper. In this case it matters little if one arguer threatens the beliefs and self-esteem of the other, for it is not the buy essays opponent he is college essay writing block trying to convince, but the audience as third party. The process of inquiry claimed for the enthymeme creates co-operation between rhetor and audience, not between rhetor and opponent. But what about the instances--far more common in buy essays, everyday life--in which two parties are directly trying to convince each other? In these dyadic situations, standard persuasive strategies will usually do more harm than good, tending to harden rather than soften positions. In such cases of dyadic argument, a technique is required that will create the grounds for reasonable discussion that classical rhetoric presupposes. Rogerian rhetoric offers such a technique (Coe 1992). The challenge for the composition teacher, of course, is how to teach students to put Rogerian principles into practice.
Rogerian rhetoric is often tried and dismissed as impractical, too difficult for essay block students to use, too difficult to teach, or too easy for students to misinterpret as a particularly sly form of buy essays, manipulation. I believe that some of these problems stem from entrepreneurship case a failure to recognize just what Rogerian rhetoric really is. Buy Essays. The basic model of Rogerian argument, particularly when abstracted from the resume rich context of heuristic techniques in which Young, Becker and Pike originally embedded it, looks like a form of arrangement: a recipe for what to say first. But arrangement is only part of the cheap business of msc thesis data, any rhetorical system. Logically prior to arrangement--and as I will argue, embedded in the process of buy essays, arrangement, not separate from it--is the process of invention. Entrepreneurship. In Rogerian terms, this means exploring an opposing point of view in sufficiently rich complexity that it is possible to reflect it back convincingly to an audience. The problem of invention is accentuated by cheap, the written medium. A writer is in a much worse position than the therapist, for writing does not allow the back-and-forth movement of entrepreneurship case studies, face to face conversation that makes possible the continual readjustment of the discourse. But if we are content to relax our standards somewhat, it is still possible for students to learn how to apply a form of Rogerian principles in cheap, writing.
To do so, they must learn how to imagine with empathy and how to read with empathy. By imagining with empathy, I mean more than teaching students to imagine another's views. This would be little different from classical audience analysis. I mean teaching students to think carefully about how another person could hold views that are different from one's own. This is network what Young, Becker and Pike mean by finding the contexts in which the opposing viewpoint is valid. Rather than simply imagining an isolated set of arguments for an opposing viewpoint, the writer must imagine the entire worldview that allows those arguments to exist, that makes them valid for the other. By reading with empathy, I mean teaching students to use the buy essays cheap printed words of another as a guide to this imagining process. In a sense, this is no more than what is usually known as research. When preparing any written argument it is useful to do one's homework. But whereas students often associate research with the mere looking-up of network, facts, research in buy essays, a Rogerian context emphasises the auditing tips looking-up of facts in the context of the arguments that support them, and buy essays cheap, looking at those arguments in the context of paper, other worldviews, other ways of seeing. This kind of imaginative reconstruction does not come easily.
In terms of actual classroom practice, it usually does very little good simply to explain these points. Rather, the teacher must set up situations in which the students can practice Rogerian reflection and the Rogerian attitude long enough that it can sink in. Cheap. For instance, the teacher can set up a dialectical situation in which they can practice on real, present people in a context more like the original therapeutic situations for which Rogerian principles were originally designed. The oral, face to face conversation serves as a bridge to the more difficult imaginative task of the distanced written conversation. Though these tasks are in one sense designed to essay, serve as preparation for another, they are in cheap, no sense mere warm-up drill or prewriting activities separate from the business of argument itself. English Global Essay Pdf. They are integral parts of what Rogerian rhetoric understands by argument: a process of mutual exploration that may culminate in a written text but which may also take oral and other pathways.
As I argue throughout this chapter, Rogerian rhetoric is a broad rubric for a way of seeing, not just a specific technique for structuring a text. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN ACTION: SOME CLOSEUPS. I will often begin with a discussion of a controversial issue that students pick from a list generated by the class.3 For this exercise I usually depend on buy essays, the knowledge that students already possess on the subject, though in more advanced classes I ask students to research the topic beforehand. I get students to identify themselves with one side or the english as a global pdf other. Then I will call on a volunteer from each side to engage in a public Rogerian discussion (since my disastrous first experience with this technique I am careful not to use the buy essays word debate). The discussion is photography organized according to cheap, Roger's own rules as suggested in english global essay pdf, Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation (1951). Neither person can mention his own views until he has restated the other person's to that person's satisfaction. Thus the buy essays cheap first round would consist of student A stating an argument, student B restating that argument in summary form, and student A either agreeing that the summary is accurate or attempting to entrepreneurship case studies, correct it.
This goes on until student A is happy with the summary; then student B gets a turn to state his own point of view (not to refute A). The exercise often breaks down into a traditional debate in which one person either tries to buy essays cheap, refute the other's views or restates them in a way that will make them easier to attack. Emotional hot buttons get pushed, and more straw men begin flying about than in english as a, the monkey attack from The Wizard of Oz. One pair of students, John and Michael, picked the topic, Should foreign students have to buy essays, pay the entire cost of their education? Neither was a foreign student, but John was highly active in the International Centre and felt strongly that it was unjust to require foreign students to pay more than local students. He stated his reasons, including basic principles of equity and the important contribution that foreign students make to the university.
Michael opened his restatement along the lines of, So, you think it's okay to make our taxpayers pay for the education of a student from Singapore who won't even stay in to use when writing, this country? Obviously, this is buy essays hardly Rogerian reflection. When one's ideas are handed back like a present with a ticking bomb inside, the fight is on. English As A Global Essay Pdf. But this is buy essays cheap exactly the point. I want students to see the difference between this sort of rebuttal and english as a language essay pdf, true Rogerian discussion. Sometimes I involve the entire class in discussing whether a particular response is genuinely Rogerian or is really just a sneak attack on the other's values. After some discussion and cheap, more prompting from John, Michael eventually worked himself around to college, identifying the values behind John's statement:
So, if I understand you correctly, you don't think that the cost of education should be tied directly to the amount of money one's family has paid into a given educational system, or the obvious financial returns that a country can get from educating people. Rather, you think that a more general principle of equity applies and buy essays, that we need to in small network, look at a more global good. He still didn't agree, but at least he understood John's point of view. Only John's assent that Michael had in cheap, fact got it right gave Michael permission to go on to state the reasons for that disagreement. The process is exhausting and studies, usually the class is over before the first exchange of cheap, views is in small complete. But by the end of the process, students (and the teacher!) have a greater appreciation of the difference between their own default mode of argument and the process of struggling toward a genuine understanding of another's point of view.
The point of this oral exchange is not so much to invent material for a particular piece of writing as to cheap, get the general feel of Rogerian discussion in its most native mode, face-to-face communication. Big Words. Once I think students have got the hang of cheap, this, I move them on to the more difficult task faced by writers: recovering underlying values from other people's written texts. Writing An Essay. Again I pair them off and they begin by writing straight-ahead, univocal arguments for their own point of view on a controversial issue. Students exchange papers and try to write summaries that satisfy the original author, who in buy essays cheap, turn may write counter-summaries that extend and correct the reflected image of studies, their ideas. Kathy, for instance, felt quite passionate about the Young Offenders Act, a controversial Canadian law that severely limits the sentencing of criminals under sixteen years of age even if they have committed violent crimes. Buy Essays Cheap. Her statement began like this: I feel that we must dispose of the Young Offenders Act. It is a useless piece of research paper, legislation practically promoting crime. Hasn't our society enough evidence that the YOA doesn't work? The use of weapons in schoolyards, an unprecedented amount of car thefts, break ins, even children selling other children for prostitution. A slap on the hand prevents nothing.
If greater punishment, including real time in jail were a threat, I guarantee that our youth would be a little more reluctant. And on and on, rehearsing in no uncertain terms the most common arguments levelled against the YOA in the media. Her partner, Tracey, began her restatement like this: You have expressed concern over the YOA. You are concerned that it actually encourages crime because of the buy essays cheap lack of deterrence. You feel that a person under sixteen knows right from wrong and should be held responsible for when an essay his or her actions, regardless of the personal situation or background which might be used as an excuse for committing crimes. You believe that we should place the betterment of society above the protection of criminals, regardless of their age. The important feature of buy essays cheap, this restatement is that it is not just a summary of the other's point of view, but, somewhat like Michael's, an attempt to get at research, underlying beliefs. Buy Essays. She then went on to state her own opinion, that it is not fair for a person to be ruined for life as a result of a crime committed at an early age. But her response was moderate, and as a global essay, had to deal with the delicate balance between protection of cheap, society and protection of individual youths that she had detected in Kathy's position.
The effect of the restating process was not simply to in small network, soften up Kathy by putting her in the right frame of buy essays, mind to receive Tracey's argument. Rather, it put Tracey in touch with the complexities of the matter, enabling her to see the matter from another's point of view rather than just her own. Once students have begun to paper, improve their ability to reflect the buy essays cheap arguments of others who are physically present, I have them move on tips, to Rogerian discussions of non-present writers. One fruitful assignment is to have students reply to articles embodying worldviews that they do not share. Sometimes I ask students to cheap, find their own article; sometimes I supply an article with which I know everyone in big words to use when, the class will disagree. Cheap. A particularly prize article that I have used frequently is an opinion piece by Catherine Ford, associate editor of the Calgary Herald. (The entire article is included as an appendix on page xx.) Ford addresses teenage girls who, she feels, cut themselves off from economic opportunities because they take bubblegum courses instead of science and math.
She cites chilling statistics about how much time most women spend in the work force and how little most of them are paid, and equates science and math--which, she says, most girls have been conned into thinking are too difficult--with one of the fastest ways to economic independence for women. However, she begins by telling her audience that the data world is passing you by, while you're all out there spray-painting your hair purple and buy essays cheap, reading People magazine, and tries to get their attention by telling them that you guys seem to have melted your brains with your stereo headphones. It's not hard to see that Ford is not exactly a master of Rogerian rhetoric, and case, the class usually has an entertaining few minutes raking her over buy essays, the coals for her unsupported generalizations and unflattering portrayal of the very people she is supposedly trying to convert. Students taking a Humanities course are particularly irritated by being accused, by implication, of having chosen a bubblegum course. Case. Then I set my students a dyadic task: to buy essays, write a letter directly to Ford herself that uses Rogerian techniques to convince her to moderate her position. To do so, we discuss not only the areas of validity in Ford's argument, but also try to understand both the rhetorical situation--why she might decide to adopt such an aggressive tone to auditing, get her point across--and also who she is as a person. Nobody in the class ever knows much about her personally, but with a little exploratory discussion, we begin to think about the implications of being a woman in cheap, her forties--to judge by college essay, her picture--who has fought her way up to associate editor of the city's major newspaper.
From this and years of experience with Ford's writing, we build up a picture of a woman who prides herself on pulling no punches, who is easily angered by behavior that she perceives as foolish, and whose feminism frequently takes the form of being disgusted by buy essays cheap, girls who cut themselves off from the opportunities that she herself fought so hard to make for herself. Her insistence on entrepreneurship, economic independence suggests someone with a fierce personal pride and a hard-nosed attitude to life, but not--judging by other columns in which she discusses government fiscal policy--someone who values money for its own sake. In short, the students are applying consciously the buy essays cheap reader-response process of constructing both a text and the person behind the text. They begin to understand that, solely from the evidence of her texts, we can, in a manner of speaking, know this person. None of research, these personal details need to find their way into the final written product, of course. There is not much to be served by presenting Ford with a detailed picture of herself that is buy essays cheap not directly relevant to entrepreneurship studies, the issue and could very well be inaccurate. The object of this part of the exercise is simply to sensitize the students to buy essays, the idea that arguments come from somewhere, and if you can understand where they are coming from, you can negotiate meaning more effectively. Here is an example of the sort of texts students produce when they sit down to produce their actual written responses:
From what I understand, you are angry that teenage girls seem to be letting life pass them by. They are playing into the roles society seems to have laid out for them, even though the deficiency of women in math and science is an enormous myth. You are frustrated that today's teenage girls do not seem motivated--they seem totally apathetic to the economic disadvantages that they are creating for themselves. I see young girls in photography research, shopping malls who seem to be wasting their lives away, concerned more with buying the right kind of makeup than with insuring that they will have the resources to lead independent lives. However, I have to buy essays, ask you this--what about language essay pdf, all the successful women in fields other than math and science?
I think there are many opportunities in math and science--opportunities that many teenage girls overlook because they think that these fields are too difficult. But your own success in the field of journalism is a prime example of the fact that there are many other ways to achieve not only economic independence but also personal fulfilment. I don't think we should make girls feel inferior because they have genuinely chosen to enter a non-science field. Buy Essays. But I guess the point is that girls should not feel locked out of any profession, and they should not take advantage of every strength they have and auditing resume tips, every opportunity life offers them. Otherwise they are going to end up being dependent on some guy because they don't have the skills they need to look after themselves. This little text would probably not turn Catherine Ford's life around if she read it. But it would be more likely to engage her in honest debate than would a text that began How dare you tell me that I'm lazy and ignorant because I'm majoring in the humanities!
More important, it reflects a new understanding on the student's part. She has not just reached a compromise, a middle point that may not satisfy anyone. Buy Essays. Rather, she has thought through what she and Catherine Ford might genuinely share on a subject that she has surely discussed before, but perhaps not explored in this way. The skills learned in this sort of global language pdf, reconstructive reading will, I hope, carry over from civil to academic discourse. As Booth long ago argued (1974), and as rhetorics of science and rhetorics of academic disciplines increasingly make us aware, there is no field of knowledge in which facts emerge unencumbered by buy essays cheap, values. A history paper or even the literature review section of a laboratory report can be enhanced by a Rogerian belief that points of view come from somewhere, that the lenses other people choose to hold up to reality are worthy of big words writing an essay, honest, empathic understanding.4 One may ask, if Rogerian principles go so much beyond mere form, why is all of this Rogerian apparatus needed at all?
My answer is that, even if Rogerian rhetoric is best seen as fundamentally a matter of invention, this invention is driven by the Rogerian form. As Richard M. Coe contends (1974), to choose any form, any pattern of arrangement, is buy essays automatically to impose an invention heuristic. If students are attempting to fill in the form of Rogerian rhetoric, they know that they must produce a statement of another's beliefs that the when an essay other person can recognize as his own and can take seriously. This knowledge drives the painstaking process of cheap, imaginative reconstruction that constitutes Rogerian invention. The most important lesson that writing teachers can take away from this discussion is that learning to use Rogerian invention is big words to use an essay not easy. Buy Essays. It cannot be accomplished in a few classes as a coda to traditional argumentation, as one might think from textbooks who spare it only big words when, a few pages. I don't mean to suggest that an entire composition course ought to built around explicit instruction in Rogerian rhetoric from beginning to end. Dialogic communication is only one kind of buy essays cheap, communication, and Rogerian rhetoric is only one kind of dialogic communication. As a form of paper, arrangement, Rogerian rhetoric may not always be appropriate: if communicative bridges are already in place, it may not be necessary to build them, and in some forms of triadic communication it may be desirable to underline only buy essays, one's own point of view.
Students therefore need to big words when an essay, be taught a variety of rhetorical forms. However, the buy essays general spirit of as a language essay, Rogerian invention should be woven into the fabric of the course through a variety of cheap, exercises that help students learn to understand others' points of view. Rogerian rhetoric is not so much a strategy as a habit of mind that must be built painstakingly over a period of months--or as I argue below, over a lifetime. CRITICISMS OF ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Rogerian rhetoric has been subject to a number of criticisms which shed light on its strengths and weaknesses. In particular, these criticisms illustrate the college essay writing importance of treating Rogerian rhetoric as part of a larger system of knowing and valuing, not as an isolated technique. One criticism of Rogerian rhetoric is that it can be manipulative. In formal structure, it looks suspiciously like the often-described indirect structure in which a writer buffers unwelcome news or an unpalatable request by flattering the reader. (One student who thought he had grasped the principles of cheap, Rogerian rhetoric exclaimed triumphantly, Oh, now I get it. First you get the reader on your side, then you hit 'em with your own ideas at the end.) Sometimes this criticism has an ethical tone, as students simply feel uncomfortable engaging in paper, manipulative practices. (In an interview with Nathaniel Teich, Rogers himself states that using his techniques to win an buy essays cheap, argument or change another's mind is a perversion of my thinking [Teich 1992b, 55].) Sometimes it has a more practical tone.
Students frequently protest that Rogerian rhetoric is entrepreneurship case too idealistic to be used in day-to-day life. Cheap. People are too hostile, they say, have too often been burned by smooth talkers, to photography research paper, be moved into buy essays a more co-operative mindset by msc thesis data, Rogerian techniques. Both of these criticisms are opposing reactions to the same reading of Rogerian rhetoric as instrumental. When seen purely as a techne, a specific tool that a student can pull out of her toolbox like a rhetorical torque wrench when a certain job needs doing, Rogerian rhetoric is always open to the charge that it doesn't always turn the nut, or that it turns one that should not be turned. But this view of Rogerian rhetoric results from an over- emphasis on arrangement. When Rogerian arrangement becomes divorced from the therapeutic roots of Roger's philosophy, it becomes little more than an updated version of the benivolentiae captatio (securing of good will) recommended in medieval and buy essays, modern letter-writing practice. That structure is photography paper as inane now as it was then, and buy essays cheap, I have written elsewhere about how easily most readers see through it (Brent 1985). Aside from the case ethical issues, foregrounded flattery just doesn't work very well in an age in which readers have been inoculated by a lifetime of exposure to sales techniques that would have made Gorgias envious. However, when Rogerian techniques are taught more as a matter of invention than of cheap, arrangement, the emphasis falls more on the underlying attitude rather than the form, the english global essay pdf mutual exploration rather than the attempt to buy essays cheap, convince an opponent. The goal of Rogerian rhetoric is to identify genuine grounds of shared understanding, not just as a precursor to an effective argument, but as a means of engaging in effective knowledge- making.
It is a way of activating the Kantian imperative to pay as much attention to network, others' ideas as you would have them pay to yours. If the buy essays result sometimes looks manipulative to a cynical audience, this is simply the price we pay for living in big words to use an essay, an imperfect world in buy essays cheap, which we can never be sure of college essay writing, each other's intentions. A deeper criticism comes from buy essays cheap feminist approaches to language. In Small Data. On the surface, Rogerian rhetoric might appear to be an ideal instantiation of feminist discourse. Studies of cheap, women's language suggest that women in to use writing an essay, conversation tend to engage in more transactional and co-operative rather than linear and competitive behavior. Through question-asking and affirming utterances, women's speaking promotes understanding (Spitzack and Carter 1987:411). Rogerian rhetoric, because it privileges co-operative construction of meaning over goal-directed persuasion, the building of cheap, relationships over the winning of an argument, seems to fit neatly into the feminist perspective. However, Phyllis Lassner (1990), Catherine Lamb (1991), and other feminist rhetoricians have reported that their students, and they themselves, have felt extremely uncomfortable with Rogerian rhetoric.
The problem, as Lamb puts it, is that Rogerian rhetoric feels feminine rather than feminist (17). Although studies of paper, women in buy essays, conversation frequently show them working harder than men at promoting understanding and maintaining relationships, the typical method of doing so, especially in gender-mixed groups, is through self-effacement (Lakoff 1975). Their tendency to photography research, interrupt less than men, to ask more questions and to avoid direct confrontation, can be seen not just as a maternal desire to focus on relationships, but also as a willingness to give in, to let the conversation be directed by men. It has always been women's work to understand others, claims Lamb. Often that has been at the expense of buy essays, understanding self (17). For men, who have been brought up to value the individualist, goal- directed construction of self, the challenge is to connect with others. For women, brought up to see themselves as socially constructed through their relationships with others, the challenge is to find ways of big words to use when, having a well- defined self without sacrificing that connectedness. Elizabeth Flynn's comparison of compositions by male and buy essays cheap, female students (Composing as a Woman 1988) dramatically illustrates these differences in orientation to research paper, self and buy essays cheap, other. In their seminal study Women's Ways of Knowing (1986), Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger and Tarule also paint a powerful picture of women whose selves are not simply connected to, but all too often extinguished by, the as a language essay more dominant selves (frequently but not always male) around them. The feminist language project, then, is to find ways of charting a course between combative (some might say phallocentric) rhetoric and self-effacement.
Here, the therapeutic roots of Rogerian rhetoric that are its greatest strength also pose its greatest danger. The role of the Rogerian therapist is buy essays precisely to efface the self in order to enable the client to use language as a tool of self-exploration. Even for the therapist, this is entrepreneurship case risky. Because the client in a therapeutic relationship is by definition dysfunctional in some way, the possibility of the therapist's personality being significantly changed by the client's is not necessarily an attractive prospect. If I enter, as fully as I can, into the private world of a neurotic or psychotic individual, isn't there a risk that I might become lost in that world? (Rogers 1951, 333) The same danger confronts any student, male or female, who tries to use Rogerian exploration to enter another's world. Moreover, as Lassner points out (1990), the detached, unemotional tone recommended by standard Rogerian rhetoric goes against the grain of buy essays cheap, most women's preferred ways of knowing. As developed by Young, Becker and Pike under the influence of General Semantics (by way of Anatol Rapoport's studies in conflict resolution), Rogerian rhetoric insists on a non-evaluative, neutral language of pure description that modern language theory, even without reference to feminist insights, rejects as impossible (Brent 1991). This privileging of rationalist objectivity, with its concomitant assumption that emotional involvement destroys the essay block purity of reason, can be seen as yet another variant on the old theme that women make poor scientists, poor speakers and poor leaders of society because they are inclined to be emotional.
Women employing Rogerian rhetoric, then, can be caught in a highly contradictory double-bind. One tenet of buy essays, Rogerian rhetoric, empathy, looks too much like feminine subservience; the to use when other, suspension of judgement, looks too much like masculine detachment. To deal with the first problem, it is important to keep in mind the differences as well as the similarities between Rogerian rhetoric and Rogerian therapy. Rogerian rhetoric requires that the rhetor suspend his tendency to judge temporarily, in order to buy essays, make contact with other points of view. But the process does not end there; the Rogerian rhetor, unlike the Rogerian therapist, has his own point of photography research, view as well, and puts it forward in cheap, concert with the picture he has constructed of the other's view.
This delicate dance of self and other characterizes all rhetorical interchange. If Rogerian rhetoric is to take its place as a means of participating in this dance, it must be a whole rhetoric, a rhetoric in photography, which the rhetor's views and cheap, those of resume, others collaborate in a dialectical process of meaning-making. When students use Rogerian reflection to buy essays, understand other points of view, then, it is auditing resume important that they use the glimpses of buy essays cheap, other selves not just to understand those other selves but also to gain a fuller understanding of their own beliefs and what has caused them to think differently from the others they take in. In classroom practice, this means that the as a essay pdf teacher needs to cheap, direct discussion toward differences as well as similarities, and toward understanding the roots of those differences. The students coming to grips with their first defensive reaction to Ford's article, for photography paper instance, explored not only what might have made Ford such an outspoken advocate of math and science, but also their own experience of buy essays, gender differences, the college essay writing reasons for their varied choices of specialization, and buy essays cheap, their relationship with different forms of knowledge in their high school years. As part of this process they use not only to use when writing an essay, Rogerian reflection but group conversation, storytelling and freewriting--all methods of exploration that can be and have been used without a Rogerian context, but which take on new depth in cheap, a Rogerian frame. It may be that the auditing tips male students profit most from the connection with others entailed by buy essays, this process, while the female students profit most by the strengthening of their understanding of msc thesis data network, self. I do not, however, wish to buy essays, buy into the politics of global essay, separation by buy essays cheap, setting up Rogerian exercises differently for male and female students. Rather, I try to big words an essay, allow space for all differences in meaning-making by emphasising the connections between the two parts of the process--the exploration of self and the exploration of other. To deal with the second problem, neutral language must be valued, not as a pure good in itself, but in a dialectical relationship with emotional language and buy essays, the connection with self that emotion entails.
As noted above, students get a chance to try out their first reactions to an opposing point of view, responding for instance to Ford's caricature of teenage girls with the derision that an when, overstated viewpoint deserves. But it is important that their first reaction not be their last, nor that it be the reaction that is committed to paper in a text aimed directly at the author of the opposing viewpoint. And even when they are passing through the most overt stage of Rogerian reflection, in which hostile language is to buy essays, be avoided at all costs, I do not make them feel that avoiding overt hostility means adopting a tone of total detachment. Photography Paper. We can strive for empathy, understanding, and the completest possible construction of the other, without supposing that language can ever be a fully neutral descriptor. In short, most of the more problematic aspects of Rogerian rhetoric result from insufficiently complex uses of the technique and buy essays cheap, a failure to bring it into line with views of language, gender and politics appropriate to the nineties. Neither Rogers nor Young, Becker and Pike ever pretended that their ideas were anything but a stage in the development of new paradigms of communication.
To teach Rogerian rhetoric as if Young, Becker and Pike's twenty-year-old formulation were the last word is to ignore the promptings of teacherly common sense as well as the work of Bator, Teich, Coe, and many others in english essay, constantly updating the cheap spirit of non-adversarial rhetoric. ROGERS AND THE ETHICS OF RHETORIC. Throughout this chapter, I hope that I have been clear that I believe Rogerian rhetoric is more an attitude than a technique. The specific form of college essay block, Rogerian discourse, in which one must be able to reflect another's point of buy essays, view before stating one's own, is not just a technique to get someone else to listen to you. It's a technique that helps students learn to connect with other points of view, explore them fully, and place them in a dialectical relationship with their own as part of a process of msc thesis in small, mutual discovery.
I believe, in consequence, that the benefits of buy essays, Rogerian rhetoric go far beyond teaching students an alternative model of argument. An important goal of a liberal education is to create citizens who are fully equipped to take their place in society. In the twentieth century, fully equipped obviously means more than having a certain necessary complement of skills. It should mean not only training in how to communicate, but also training in what communication is for. Once a person has fully internalized the process of inquiry into entrepreneurship studies another's beliefs--not just the surface of buy essays cheap, those beliefs but the underlying experiences and values from which they spring--it will be proportionally more difficult for him to treat others as mere instruments for the fulfilment of his own desires. He will be in a better position to find, as Booth puts it, grounds for confidence in a multiplicity of ways of knowing (1974; see also Bator, 1992). This growth in understanding of others is frequently placed under the heading of cognitive growth by developmental researchers such as William Perry. This name is certainly not inappropriate, for the ability to think through one's own position relative to those of others, and to find grounds for at essay block, least provisional confidence in an intellectual position, is cheap certainly a cognitive act. But it is also an ethical act.
Cognition is to use writing concerned with understanding and buy essays, ethics is concerned with valuing, but the one presupposes the other. Writing. We do not have to value positively all those whom we understand-- we may understand a Nazi prison guard, as Bruno Bettelheim does in one of Young, Becker and Pike's examples, without adopting his views. But we certainly cannot make informed ethical choices without being able to explore other points of view. Rogerian rhetoric therefore presupposes a different relationship between ethics and rhetoric than does classical rhetoric. Quintilian for buy essays cheap instance insists on virtue as a precondition to good rhetoric: rhetoric is a good man speaking well. Entrepreneurship Studies. If virtue includes being able to achieve understanding of other people, not only those with whom we must argue directly but also those countless others, alive and long dead, who contribute to the rhetorical building of our selves, then Rogerian rhetoric reverses the buy essays cheap equation. Rogerian training in speaking well helps to create a good person by auditing resume, contributing to ethical as well as cognitive growth. Good rhetoric is a precondition to virtue.
This is buy essays a heavy burden, and of course Rogerian rhetoric cannot be expected to carry it alone. The world will not become populated by caring and mutually supportive citizens simply because students are taught one particular means (even if it is, as I believe, a particularly powerful means) of exploring others' points of view. But we could certainly do worse than to take up Rogers' challenge to take this small scale answer, investigate it further, refine it, develop it and apply it to the tragic and well-nigh fatal failures of entrepreneurship case studies, communication that threaten the very existence of our modern world (1951:337). CODA: BEYOND ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Young, Becker and Pike end their book with a section called simply Beyond Analysis.
With almost no comment they reproduce A. M. Rosenthal's haunting piece There Is No News from Auschwitz, a text that presents so powerfully one nightmarish consequence of the differences that separate men that contemplation seems more appropriate than analysis (370). It is an eloquent testimony to the need to develop and teach any textual practices, however imperfect and in need of cheap, continued development, that we can find which might help our students bridge such tragic differences. I would like to end, with equally little comment, with an incident that suggests a more optimistic counterpart to Rosenthal's dark vision: a renewed faith in the healing power of language. I had paired several sets of students for an oral Rogerian discussion as described above. One pair decided to discuss drunk driving. Photography Research. They are not exactly on opposing sides--who would be for drunk driving?--but they had very different views of the problem and cheap, its consequences. College Block. Was that all right? I told them that it was; in cheap, reality, differences of opinion seldom divide along neat bipolar lines of cleavage that allow pat yes/no sides. Lisa went first. Photography Paper. Her initial statement of position was much fuller than usual.
In somewhat abbreviated form, it went like this: The year I was born, my grandmother was killed by a drunk driver. She was the stabilizing force in my grandpa's life, so when he died he became a bitter and miserable man. The only time I've ever spent with my grandpa is when he lived with our family after he was seriously injured in another drinking and buy essays, driving incident. This time he was the drunk.
This accident left him crippled and auditing tips, even more miserable. I see my grandpa once a year. He is buy essays cheap usually in his wheelchair complaining. All I think is, You did this to yourself. But then I think, if my grandma hadn't been killed maybe he would be different. The driver that killed her robbed me. I have seen pictures of her; the one that stands out in my memory is her giggling in my Dad's purple dunebuggy. She was wearing a short skirt, had a beehive and was 50 years old. I never got to meet her. My family does not dwell on what happened so many years ago.
We never talk about what happened to when writing, the other driver. Buy Essays. But we never drink and drive. Gayleen went through the motions of reflecting back Lisa's statement, appreciating the pain and auditing resume, the anger contained within it. But there really wasn't much to uncover. Lisa's eloquent narrative hide little that needed to be dug out by Rogerian techniques, and they reached agreement very quickly that Gayleen had got it.
Gayleen's opening statement was equally full: I also learned a very hard lesson, but from a different perspective than you, Lisa. I too was the buy essays cheap victim of a drunk driver, and I too lost something that day that I will never be able to regain. The difference is that a member of my family was not killed by a drunk driver--a member of data, my family was the drunk driver. When I was nineteen years old, my fiance went to a stag one night. They all drank and then drove home. On the way home, he went through a stop sign and broadsided a car, killing a woman in the back seat.
From that day on, my life was never the same. While the court case dragged on, I was trying to plan a future. But since my fiance was charged with four counts of criminal negligence causing death, jail was a real possibility. Several people who didn't feel comfortable confronting my fiacne said terrible, hurtful things to me, as if I condoned this act he had chosen. Buy Essays Cheap. Friends dropped us as if we had a contagious disease, including the same guys my fiane had grown up with and partied with that night, and who also drank and drove themselves home. I also grieved for the family of the language woman who was killed, a woman about my mother's age--I kept thinking that it could have been her. My fiance was never able to buy essays cheap, talk about his feelings about that night. Entrepreneurship Studies. Though we got married and were together for twenty years, it set a pattern for him of avoiding difficult situations and emotions. He continued to buy essays cheap, drink and drive--perhaps ten times in twenty years, but it was ten times too many, and it was the as a global essay pdf one thing we argued about until our marriage fell apart. I always wanted to tell the woman's family how truly sorry I was for buy essays their loss. I thought of her every day for many years, so that now the incident is a part of the fabric of my being.
I don't drink and drive, yet I feel the same shame as if I had been behind the wheel that day. What more could be said? What could be reflected back? Lisa repeated back the msc thesis pain that Gayleen had expressed, but there was little need; Gayleen had said what needed to be said without benefit of quasi-Rogerian questioning. And as for working through propositions to isolate areas of mutual validity-- well, as you might imagine, we never got that far.
At the end of their Rogerian discussion, they shared the background of their topic. Twenty years apart in age, they were not acquainted except through class discussions on rhetoric. Gayleen had recognized Lisa's name at the beginning of term, but they had not discussed the incident until they were paired by random number draw. It was at cheap, that time that they decided to try discussing their beliefs on drunk driving, because they shared far more than a general interest in the subject. The accidents they had discussed were actually the same accident.
Gayleen's fiance had killed Lisa's grandmother. The class was left speechless by the courage they displayed in talking about this incident in front of people who until two months ago had been total strangers. An Essay. They also had the buy essays cheap courage to revisit the long-standing grief and anger with each other and with their families. Lisa, who had never really talked with her parents about the in small incident and what it had meant to her family, talked now, and gave a copy of Gayleen's speaking notes to her father. A renewed process of healing through language was begun. Rogerian rhetoric is lauded for buy essays its power to build bridges. But in this instance, the elaborate scaffolding of Rogerian rhetoric was unnecessary because Gayleen and Lisa, through the most impossible of chances, had already found the opportunity to work through their long-separated feelings in both private and public rhetoric.
The bridges were already in data network, place when they stood to speak. There is no news from Auschwitz, but there is news from buy essays Communications Studies 461. One news item is that Rogerian rhetoric is not always necessary if the conversants have the when will to communicate. But the more important news is that the cheap power of rhetoric, Rogerian or not, to english as a global language, heal is buy essays cheap as powerful as its ability to persuade. It has a power that is beyond analysis. 1. It is instructive to watch Rogers in action in films such as Three Approaches to Psycholtherapy II - Dr. Essay Block. Rogers.
I do not necessarily suggest showing these films to a composition class, as they set up such a powerful image of buy essays, Rogers' methods as therapy that it may be difficult for students to make the transition to written rhetoric. However, they are well worth the as a global time of any teacher who wants to use Rogerian rhetoric. 2. For a more thorough critical analysis of the strengths and cheap, weaknesses of Young, Becker and entrepreneurship, Pike's entire project, as well as a more complete discussion of the criticisms that have been levelled at Rogerian Rhetoric over buy essays cheap, the years, see my article Young, Becker and Pike's 'Rogerian' Rhetoric: A Twenty-Year Reassessment, College English, 53:452-66. 3. Nathaniel Teich recommends exactly the opposite. Because controversial arguments tend to produce intractable position, Teich suggest avoiding them and essay, concentrating on less emotionally taxing ones (Rogerian Problem-Solving 57-58). I take his point, but because emotional situations are precisely the ones in which Rogerian rhetoric is most necessary, I tend to damn the torpedoes and let students argue about gun control, nuclear disarmament and such.
Perhaps the main criterion for cheap choosing between these paths is auditing resume tips how long the buy essays cheap course is--that is, how much time the instructor is able to spend on damage control. 4. In Reading as Rhetorical Invention (Urbana: NCTE 1992), I extend this argument to claim that all research, even into the most apparently factual information, is strongest when it consists of this sort of imaginative reconstruction of the person behind the text. That we can never do so perfectly--that all reading is fundamentally indeterminate-- ought not to dissuade us from in small teaching our students to come as close as they can. Bator, P. 1980. Aristotelian and Rogerian rhetoric. Buy Essays. College Composition and Communication. 31:427-32. Bator, P. As A Global Language Essay Pdf. 1992. Rogers and the teaching of rhetoric and composition.
In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. Nathaniel Teich, 83-100. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Brent, D. 1985. Indirect structure and reader response. Journal of the American Business Communication Association. 22: 5-8. Brent, D. 1991. Young, Becker and Pike's 'Rogerian' rhetoric: A twenty-year reassessment, College English. 53:452-66.
Coe, R. M. 1974. An apology for buy essays form, or, who took the form out of the process? College English. Case. 49:13-28. Coe, R. M. 1990. Process, Form, and buy essays cheap, Substance: A Rhetoric for Advanced Writers. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Coe, R. M. 1992. Classical and Rogerian persuasion: An archaeological/ecological explication. In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and as a language essay, Written Communication, ed.
Nathaniel Teich, 83-100. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Ede, L. 1984. Is Rogerian rhetoric really Rogerian? Rhetoric Review 3 (1984):40-48. Flower, L. 1993. Problem-Solving Strategies for Writers. Buy Essays. 4th ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Flynn, E. 1988.
Composing as a woman. College Composition and big words when, Communication 39:423-35. Hairston, M. 1976. Carl Rogers' alternative to traditional rhetoric. College Composition and Communication. 27:373-77. Lakoff, R. 1975. Language and Women's Place. New York: Harper and Row. Lamb, C. E. 1991. Beyond argument in feminist composition.
College Composition and Communication. 42:11-24. Lunsford, A. A. Buy Essays Cheap. 1979. Aristotelian vs. Rogerian argument: A reassessment. College Composition and Communication. 30:146-51. Lunsford, A. A., and L. S. Essay Writing. Ede. Buy Essays. 1984.
On distinctions between classical and modern rhetoric. As A Global Language Pdf. In Essays of Classical and Modern Discourse, ed. Robert J. Connors, Lisa S. Ede and Andrea A. Lunsford, 37-49. Buy Essays. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press. Mader, D. C. 1980. Big Words To Use When Writing. What are they doing to Carl Rogers?
Et Cetera. 37:314-20 kPlato. 1951. Gorgias, trans. W. C. Helmbold. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. Plato. 1956. Phaedrus, trans. W. C. Helmhold and W. G. Rabinowitz. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
Rogers, C. R. 1961. This is buy essays me. Chapter 1 of On Becoming a Person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. Auditing. R. 1951. Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation.
Rpt. in On Becoming a Person, C. R. Cheap. Rogers, 1961, 329-337, Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R. 1965. Client-Centered Therapy. When An Essay. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R., and D. Ryback. 1984. One alternative to planetary suicide.
The Consulting Psychologist. 12(2):3-12. Cheap. Rpt. in Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. Nathaniel Teich, 35-54. Northwood, NJ: Ablex, 1992. Spitzack, C., and K. Carter. 1987.
Women in communication studies: A typology for revision. Quarterly Journal of big words to use when writing, Speech. Buy Essays. 73:401-23. Teich, N., editor. 1992a. Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Teich, N. 1992b.
Conversation with Carl Rogers. In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. N. Teich, 55-64. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Young, R. E., A. Photography. L. Becker and buy essays, K. L. Pike.
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Researching Resume Keywords in Job Postings. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Be sure to read the main article in this series, Tapping the Power of cheap Keywords to Enhance Your Resume’s Effectiveness. The method that career experts most commonly suggest for identifying the keywords that an employer is likely to photography research paper, seek in any given job search involves scrutinizing employment ads to see what keywords are prominently or repeatedly mentioned in association with a given job title. The ads can come from cheap, anywhere — Internet job boards, company Websites, trade publications, newspapers, or internal company job postings. Experts say to msc thesis data network, find anywhere from three to 20 ads for the same position at various companies. Go through each one and highlight or underline the words and phrases that seem as though they could be the buy essays, keywords used in the employer’s search criteria.
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As you can see in the illustration, “Sales,” as you might expect, is the most prominent keyword. As you analyze job postings yourself to develop keywords, consider using our Resume Keywords Worksheet. Here, we offer two examples from popular jobs, pharmaceutical sales rep and project manager, for which we frequently prepare resumes for entrepreneurship clients. Ad #1, Pharmaceutical Sales Rep. –Works with District Sales Manager to assess territory sales performance and cheap, market trends. –Works with Pharmaceutical Sales Specialists, as appropriate, to coordinate selling efforts. –Works with deployed marketing operations and Medical Information Scientist personnel to develop customized programs/materials for auditing tips the therapeutic areas and territory. –Works with Regional Account Directors to maximize impact of managed care pull through activities.
–Functions independently with a high degree of sales proficiency . –Ensures a strong working knowledge of product portfolio ; passing all required tests. –Applies learned product knowledge to accomplish sales objectives . –Clearly understands the Strategic Targeting Plan and works to meet and buy essays, exceed reach and as a global language, frequency goals. –Ensures sales forecasts and assigned budgets meet or exceed therapeutic and territory expectations. –Develops an aggressive strategy for implementing the Strategic Targeting Plan following formulary approval and following through on strategy with recognizable increases of sales in territory. –Works with District Sales Manager to assess sales performance and market trends; suggests and implements appropriate actions to enhance performance. –Provides special education programs to physicians and office staff members . –Provides timely and competent administrative management of work hours, sales call data, customer objectives, communication responses, synchronization, sample, and expense reporting. –Seeks out cheap team building opportunities in order to communicate effectively and auditing, transfer information with supervisor and peers. –Reviews, implements, and practices all company policies. –Works within a frame work of company cultural attributes. Qualifications — Bachelor’s Degree.
–Demonstrated sales and communication abilities. –Valid drivers license and safe driving record. — Computer office suite literacy at an intermediate level. — Previous outside sales experience. –Excellent interpersonal , organizational and time management skills. Ad #2: Pharmaceutical Sales Representative. Job Description: Represents company and company products in an assigned geographical territory in a complex, dynamic business environment. Buy Essays? Primary responsibility of the Professional Representative is to effectively promote company products through a needs-based selling approach. Representatives provide accurate information to physicians and other health care personnel so products will be prescribed when indicated. Management of the territory business is conducted in concert with other territory team members , specialty representatives, hospital representatives and other business resources. Progressive promotion to Senior or Executive Professional Representative may occur through demonstration of sustained high performance and leadership . Skills: Sales experience/persuasion skills , Communication , Leadership , Planning Organization , Self-motivation initiative . Ability to understand and convey complex information.
Degree Level Required: Bachelor’s Degree . Major Preferred: Sciences, Business, Healthcare Fields . Ad #3: Pharmaceutical Sales. As a Pharmaceutical Sales Representative you will: –Sell our pharmaceutical products in a prescribed manner to physicians, retail pharmacies, and other members of the case, health care industry. –Develop local business plan to buy essays, increase market share by outlining tactics, activities and resources. –Demonstrate thorough knowledge of pharmaceutical products, competitor products and product objectives . –Utilize customer-focused selling techniques , continually assessing the knowledge of the customer and strategy to maintain high cust omer intimacy and msc thesis network, customer knowledge of products.
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What is the capacity of short term memory? Short-term memory is the memory for a stimulus that lasts for buy essays cheap a short while (Carlson, 2001). In practical terms visual short-term memory is often used for paper a comparative purpose when one cannot look in two places at once but wish to compare two or more possibilities. Buy Essays. Tuholski and colleagues refer to short-term memory as being the concomitant processing and storage of english as a pdf, information (Tuholski, Engle, Baylis, 2001). They also highlight the fact that cognitive ability can often be adversely affected by buy essays cheap working memory capacity. Big Words To Use. It is particularly important to cheap, be clear on the normal capacity of short term memory as, without a proper understanding of the photography research, intact brain’s functioning it is difficult to assess whether an individual has a deficit in ability (Parkin, 1996).
This review outlines George Miller’s historical view of short-term memory capacity and how it can be affected, before bringing the research up to date and cheap, illustrating a selection of ways of measuring short-term memory capacity. The historical view of short-term memory capacity. The span of paper, absolute judgement is defined as the limit to the accuracy with which one can identify the magnitude of a unidimensional stimulus variable (Miller, 1956), with this limit or span traditionally being around 7 + 2. Miller cites Hayes memory span experiment as evidence for his limiting span. Buy Essays. In this participants had to recall information read aloud to them and results clearly showed that there was a normal upper limit of msc thesis in small network, 9 when binary items were used. This was despite the cheap, constant information hypothesis, which has suggested that the span should be long if each presented item contained little information (Miller, 1956). The conclusion from Hayes and Pollack’s experiments (see figure 1) was that the amount of information transmitted increases in a linear fashion along with the amount of information per unit input (Miller, 1956). Figure 1. Measurements of memory for information sources of different types and bit quotients, compared to expected results for constant information.
Results from Hayes (left) and Pollack (right) cited by (Miller, 1956) Miller refers to a ‘bit’ of information as ‘the amount of information needed to make a decision between two equally likely alternatives’. Auditing Resume Tips. Thus a simple either or decision requires one bit of information; with more required for more complex decisions, along a binary pathway (Miller, 1956). Decimal digits are worth 3.3 bits apiece, meaning that a 7-digit phone number (that which is easily remembered) would involve 23 bits of information. However an apparent contradiction to buy essays, this is the fact that, if an English word is case, worth around 10 bits and only 23 bits could be remembered then only 2-3 words could be remembered at any one time, obviously incorrect.
The limiting span can better be understood in terms of the assimilation of cheap, bits into chunks. Miller distinguishes between bits and chunks of information, the distinction being that a chunk is made up of multiple bits of information. Case Studies. It is interesting to note that whilst there is a finite capacity to buy essays cheap, remember chunks of information, the amount of to use when writing an essay, bits in cheap each of those chunks can vary widely (Miller, 1956). However it is not a simple case of being able to remember large chunks immediately, rather that as each bit becomes more familiar, it can be assimilated into a chunk, which is then remembered itself. To Use When Writing An Essay. Recoding is the process by which individual bits are ‘recoded’ and assigned to chunks. Thus the conclusions that can be drawn from Miller’s original exposition is that, whilst there is an accepted limit to the number of chunks of information that can be stored in immediate (short-term) memory, the amount of buy essays, information within each of those chunks is able to be quite high, without adversely affecting the recall of the same number of chunks.
The modern view of short-term memory capacity. Millers magic number 7+2 has been more recently redefined to the magic number 4+1 (Cowan, 2001). Photography Research Paper. The challenge has come from results such as those from Chen and buy essays cheap, Cowan, in msc thesis data network which the predicted results from an experiment were that immediate serial recall of absolute numbers of buy essays cheap, singleton words would be the same as the number of chunks of learned pair words. However in fact it was found that the same number of pre-exposed singleton words was recalled as the number of words within learned pairs - eg 8 words (presented as 8 singletons or 4 learned pairs). However 6 learned pairs could be recalled as successfully as 6 pre-exposed singleton words (Chen Cowan, 2005). This suggested a different mechanism for recall depending on the circumstances. Cowan refers to the maximum number of chunks that can be recalled as the big words writing an essay, memory storage capacity (Cowan, 2001). It is noted that the number of chunks can be affected by buy essays long-term memory information, as indicated by Miller in terms of recoding - with additional information to enable this recoding coming from long-term memory. Factors affecting apparent short-term memory. The propensity to use rehearsal and memory aids is a serious complication in accurately measuring the capacity of short-term memory. Indeed many of the college block, studies ostentatiously measuring short-term memory capacity have been argued to be actually measuring the ability to rehearse and access long-term memory stores (Cowan, 2001).
Given that recoding involves rehearsal and the use of long-term memory formation, anything that prevents or influences these will obviously affect the ability to buy essays, recode successfully (Cowan, 2001). Short-term memory capacity may be limited when information overload precludes recoding (Cowan, 2001). English Global Essay. For instance, if attention is directed away from the target stimulus during presentation there is too much information being processed to attend properly to the target stimulus. Buy Essays. Therefore fewer items would be remembered as they would have been replaced by information from this alternate direction. To Use Writing. Similarly, but actually distinguished quite definitively by Cowan, are techniques such as the buy essays, requirement to repeat a separate word during the target stimulus presentation, which acts to prevent rehearsal. Altering stimulus frequency and format. It has been found that, if a word list contains words of long and short length words, recall is better for the length that occurs least frequently, thus is more individually distinct (Chen Cowan, 2005).
Similarly the word length effect indicates that memory span is higher for words with a shorter spoken duration; syllable length varying as long as the spoken duration remains relatively constant (Parkin, 1996). This is similar to big words writing an essay, Miller’s chunking of information, if one were to buy essays cheap, assume that the spoken duration was a chunk of information and the syllable length was the college writing, bit of information. Associations between components of information. Associations between the pieces of information presented can influence capacity. Cheap. Cowan illustrates this using the letter sequence fbicbsibmirs which on first glance looks like a meaningless string that would require memory of 12 separate bits of information. However, on closer examination it can be seen that there are in fact 4 separate 3 letter chunks, namely ‘fbi, ‘cbs’, ‘ibm’ and ‘irs’. Now, if these had been random letter strings with no associated meaning there would be little chunk, or indeed likelihood of chunking the letters. However it is suggested that the entrepreneurship, well known acronyms of governmental and industry organisations considerably aids recoding, thus memory. The conclusion made is that chunking, thus information recall, is aided if there are strong long-term memory associations within chunks, but minimal associations between chunks (Cowan, 2001).
This enables each chunk to be remembered separately without overlap to another chunk. Short-term memory has traditionally be assumed to be time limited, in that information is only able to stay in cheap the memory store for a specific time. However this assertion has been challenged and instead a form of information replacement has been suggested, whereby a finite capacity to short-term memory ensures that the entry of english language pdf, a new piece of information displaces an older one (Cowan, 2001). Methods of measuring the capacity of short-term memory. There are a variety of methods used to buy essays cheap, measure the capacity of short-term memory. These include enumeration, whole report and alphanumeric span tasks (taken to have a 4 chunk upper limit), and recall of visual stimuli, multi-object tracking and repetition priming (all argued to show an upper limit of less than 4) (Avons, Ward, Russo, 2001). The following section outlines a brief methodology of short-term memory measurement for auditing tips selected experiment types, along with a summary of results thus far obtained. Enumeration tasks involve presenting a participant with n objects to buy essays cheap, count, and studies, measuring the reaction time for each number. It is buy essays cheap, argued that the smaller the working memory capacity, the steeper the reaction time slopes would be (Tuholski et al., 2001).
As can be seen from writing an essay, figure 2 below; using lines as the object to count; the reaction time is relatively constant until more than 4 lines are presented, at which point reaction time increases sharply. This indicates that 4 lines is the easy upper limit in terms of buy essays cheap, this particular version of an essay, short-term memory. Buy Essays. The authors conclude that it is the entrepreneurship studies, controlled processing element of counting that limits the working memory span. This has been described as subitizing, in which a few items can be readily and rapidly attended, but more items require a steep increase in both reaction time and overall time required to attend to buy essays cheap, the items (Cowan, 2001). Figure 2. An example of results obtained from an enumeration task (adapted from (Tuholski et al., 2001) It could be argued, however, that enumeration isn’t measuring short-term memory as much as counting ability. Further it has been indicated that enumeration is invariably only resume tips related to individuated items (Cowan, 2001), eg bits rather than chunks, so it is not clear what results would occur if it were not. Whole report procedures involve recalling all possible stimuli from an array presented. This contrasts to partial report procedures, in which only specific stimuli need to be recalled, usually in response to a specific cue. Cowan reports results indicating that short-term memory capacity is 4 for whole report procedures and links this to sensory memory (Cowan, 2001).
Figure 3 below shows Cowan’s suggested nested information procedure for whole report. In this any and all information is elevated from the activated long-term memory store into the focus of buy essays cheap, attention until this latter is full (Cowan, 2001). Msc Thesis In Small. This contrasts to partial report measures; in which only cued items enter the focus of attention. Figure 3. Processing in whole report procedures (Cowan, 2001) Multi-object tracking is carried out using flashing dots on a computer screen. Participants are required to cheap, identify which of the finally presented dots have flashed at the start of the procedure (a in figure 4), having watched the dots move around the screen (b in figure 4 below).
Figure 4. An example of the dots used in a multi object tracking procedure (Cavanagh Alvarez, 2005) Repetition priming involves the presentation of a series of to use, words and nonwords, which includes repetition of buy essays, words with a variable number of other items intervening. The repeated word is said to be primed and the specific measure is the reaction time to this repeated word. It has been found that up to 4 items can be reliably recognised in essay block this way (Cowan, 2001) (see figure 5 below). McKone argues that repetition priming is an accurate measure of short-term memory capacity as the long lists of buy essays, words prevent rehearsal, as does the essay writing, inclusion of nonwords (McKone, 2000). Indeed she goes on to explain that capacity, as measured by primed repetition is buy essays, related to the limited nature of the photography paper, focus of attention. Figure 5. The reaction time and buy essays, number of words recognised from primed (old) words in a repetition priming experiment (McKone, 2000) There is still much debate about the capacity of short-term memory and the accuracy of measuring it. It is in small network, difficult to separate genuine short-term memory capacity from the more working memory capacity that is affected by buy essays cheap rehearsal.
Whilst researchers may argue that they have managed to remove all rehearsal (probably the most crucial thing affecting short-term memory capacity) that cannot be definitively proven as humans can attend to more than one stimulus at any one time. Nevertheless whilst Miller’s original work is still seminal in auditing the area of short-term memory capacity it is true to say that his conclusions of 7 + 2 has now been superseded to 4 + 1. Avons, S. E., Ward, G., Russo, R. (2001). The dangers of taking capacity limits too literally. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 24(1), 114-115. Carlson, N. (2001). Learning and memory: Basic mechanisms. Physiology of behaviour (7th ed.) (pp. 423-465). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Cavanagh, P., Alvarez, G. A. (2005).
Tracking multiple targets with multifocal attention. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(7), 349-354. Buy Essays Cheap. Chen, Z., Cowan, N. (2005). Chunk limits and length limits in when an essay immediate recall: A reconciliation. Buy Essays. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31(6), 1235-1249. Cowan, N. Case Studies. (2001).
The magical number 4 in short-term memory : A reconsideration of mental storage capacity. Buy Essays Cheap. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 24(1), 87-114; discussion 114-85. Delvenne, J. F. (2005). English As A Global. The capacity of visual short-term memory within and buy essays cheap, between hemifields. Writing Block. Cognition, 96(3), B79-88. Green, C. Buy Essays Cheap. S., Bavelier, D. Photography Research Paper. (2005). Enumeration versus multiple object tracking: The case of action video game players. [Electronic version]. Cognition, in press, 1-29. McKone, E. (2000). Capacity limits in continuous old-new recognition and in short-term implicit memory. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 24(1), 130-131.
Miller, G. A. (1956). Buy Essays Cheap. The magical number seven plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Auditing Tips. Psychological Review, 63(2), 81-97. Parkin, A. J. (1996). Spoken language impairments. Buy Essays Cheap. In A. J. Parkin (Ed.), Explorations in cognitive neuropsychology (1st ed.) (pp. 129-153).
Hove, East Sussex: Psychology Press. Tuholski, S. W., Engle, R. W., Baylis, G. C. (2001). Individual differences in working memory capacity and as a essay, enumeration. Memory Cognition, 29(3), 484-492. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Pyschology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Pyschology work in buy essays cheap your email box, in college writing as little as 3 hours. This Pyschology essay was submitted to us by buy essays a student in order to help you with your studies.
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